ill take a stab at some of the items above even though im not a flat earther. im very familiar with the common models used in FE and maybe i can shed some light on the topic. im going to do point 5, theres alot there. I will speak as if these thngs are in fact this way but im simply explaining the model.
imagine the flat earth maps you've seen and now on top of that, you have a close and small sun as well as moon. they travel above the surface in circular patterns but more like spirals, in accordance with established observence of paths. so the sun moves from one tropic to the other, for example, and it does this once per year.
when the sun is farther from your location (closer to the farthest tropic line from you) , you have winter, when it is closer, you have summer. it is small and so doesn't light the entirety of the map, neither is it visible past a certain distance. same for the moon. this distance is where your horizon is. i will post a pic of this scene after this post, if i can find one good enough. this orbit around the surface also explains timezones since any place farther east of the suns' direct overhead location will be further ahead in time and those farther west will be behind in time, as time catches up when the sun does. timezones are human constructs to reflect the suns position.
Lunar Phases - some believe the moon to be self luminescent but I'm a little rusty with other explanations. maybe the FE model of sun/moon locations could account for shadows if the moon were lit by the sun but I havent looked at that.
eclipses - some believe that the moon is blocking the sun, just that both are closer than the RE model, and some believe there are other bodies inhabiting the same space but that they are not seen unless they interfere with sun/moon light. at least one of these bodies would have to be translucent to explain lunar eclipse.
retrograde mars motion - not sure, dont remember reading about this and im a little rusty. if i find the time to find out if this is dealt with, ill post back but maybe someone else can fill in the blanks there?
daily tides - the only explanation i saw on this was that the water is reacting to the magnetic nature of the sun and possibly the moon too.
satellites - this one is interesting since theres some history and documention associated; evidence, you might say but not proof. these are generally thought to be connected to balloons, similar to weather balloons.
in addition to those listed under point 5, let me clarify a few other things:
No claims are made as to what is under the flat plane of the surface. stars and planets are often (not by everyone) thought to be contained in the structure of the dome which covers the entirety of earth, like a snow globe. some thing the moon/sun are under that dome, some think they are outside the dome.
FE isnt really very strict in all things and different people may have different views on the various aspects since they have not been proven per se.
i hope that clarifies some things. I am no FE expert so feel free to research yourself.