Do you still believe?

by Chimene 154 Replies latest watchtower beliefs

  • insearchoftruth

    And after a long week of work, with nothing planned for tomorrow, time for one of those beers that God giveth!

  • Chimene

    Amen insearchfortruth! It ! TGIF! LOL

  • insearchoftruth

    Back at you Chimene, have a great weekend as well, thanks for the support and ideas!! Cheers!!!

  • Chimene

    Your most welcom insearchruth! back atcha !

  • kid-A

    Sorry to burst the bubble Nic, but the genetic component to religious thinking has been demonstrated in several well document scientific studies published in reputable, peer-reviewed journals.

    Genes may help determine how religious a person is, suggests a new study of US twins. And the effects of a religious upbringing may fade with time.

    Until about 25 years ago, scientists assumed that religious behaviour was simply the product of a person's socialisation - or "nurture". But more recent studies, including those on adult twins who were raised apart, suggest genes contribute about 40% of the variability in a person's religiousness.

    But it is not clear how that contribution changes with age. A few studies on children and teenagers - with biological or adoptive parents - show the children tend to mirror the religious beliefs and behaviours of the parents with whom they live. That suggests genes play a small role in religiousness at that age.

    Now, researchers led by Laura Koenig, a psychology graduate student at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, US, have tried to tease apart how the effects of nature and nurture vary with time. Their study suggests that as adolescents grow into adults, genetic factors become more important in determining how religious a person is, while environmental factors wane.

    Religious discussions

    The team gave questionnaires to 169 pairs of identical twins - 100% genetically identical - and 104 pairs of fraternal twins - 50% genetically identical - born in Minnesota.

    The twins, all male and in their early 30s, were asked how often they currently went to religious services, prayed, and discussed religious teachings. This was compared with when they were growing up and living with their families. Then, each participant answered the same questions regarding their mother, father, and their twin.

    The twins believed that when they were younger, all of their family members - including themselves - shared similar religious behaviour. But in adulthood, however, only the identical twins reported maintaining that similarity. In contrast, fraternal twins were about a third less similar than they were as children.

    "That would suggest genetic factors are becoming more important and growing up together less important," says team member Matt McGue, a psychologist at the University of Minnesota.

    Empty nests

    Michael McCullough, a psychologist at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, US, agrees. "To a great extent, you can't be who you are when you're living under your parents' roof. But once you leave the nest, you can begin to let your own preferences and dispositions shape your behaviour," he told New Scientist.

    "Maybe, ultimately, we all decide what we're most comfortable with, and it may have more to do with our own makeup than how we were treated when we were adolescents," says McGue.

    About a dozen studies have shown that religious people tend to share other personality traits, although it is not clear whether these arise from genetic or environmental factors. These include the ability to get along well with others and being conscientious, working hard, being punctual, and controlling one's impulses.

    But McGue says the new work suggests that being raised in a religious household may affect a person's long-term psychological state less than previously thought. But he says the influence from this early socialisation may re-emerge later on, when the twins have families of their own. He also points out that the finding may not be universal because the research focused on a single population of US men.

    Journal reference: Journal of Personality (vol 73, p 471)

    Psychiatr Genet. 2000 Dec;10(4):185-9.Related Articles, Links
    The DRD4 gene and the spiritual transcendence scale of the character temperament index.

    Comings DE , Gonzales N , Saucier G , Johnson JP , MacMurray JP .

    Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, California, USA. [email protected]

    Two hundred male subjects (81 college students and 119 subjects from an addiction treatment unit) were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and genotyped at the 48 base pair repeat polymorphism of the DRD4 gene. Subjects were divided by genotype into those carrying any < 4 repeat allele, those homozygous for the 4 repeat allele, and those with any > 4 repeat allele. The total MANCOVA of seven TCI summary scores, with age and diagnostic group as covariates, was significant (P < or = 0.001). The largest effect was with self-transcendence (P < or = 0.001). The total MANCOVA for the three self-transcendence subscores was significant (P < or = 0.017), with the spiritual acceptance subscore showing the most effect (P < or = 0.001, power = 0.91). These results suggest the DRD4 gene may play a role in the personality trait of spiritual acceptance. This may be a function of the high concentration of the dopamine D4 receptor in the cortical areas, especially the frontal cortex.

    Twin Res. 1999 Jun;2(2):108-14.Related Articles, Links

    Individual differences in adolescent religiosity in Finland: familial effects are modified by sex and region of residence.

    Winter T , Kaprio J , Viken RJ , Karvonen S , Rose RJ .

    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.

    Data from 16-year-old Finnish twin pairs were used to estimate familial effects on religiosity and the modification of those effects by sex and residential region. The sample of 2265 twin boys and 2521 twin girls formed 779 monozygotic and 1614 dizygotic pairs, 785 of the same sex and 829 of opposite sex. We compared religiosity scores of twins living in more rural and traditional northern Finland with those living in the more urban and secular southern region. Girls had higher religiosity scores than did boys, and twins living in northern Finland had higher religiosity scores than those resident in southern Finland. Correlations for monozygotic twins were slightly higher than those for dizygotic twins, and covariance modeling found modest heritability of religiosity [11% (95% CI 0-24) for girls; 22% (95% CI 6-38) for boys], and substantial shared environmental effects [60% (95% CI 49-69) and 45% (95% CI 31-57)] among girls and boys, respectively. The correlation between shared environmental effects in boys and girls was estimated to be 0.84 (95% CI 0.73-0.99). In analyses distinguishing region of residence, girls living in southern Finland were found to have significantly higher unshared environmental effects than girls in northern Finland, while boys living in the urban south appeared to have lower shared environmental effects, and higher additive genetic effects, than boys living in the rural north

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