Evolution is a Fact #1 - Protein Functional Redundancy

by cofty 291 Replies latest watchtower beliefs

  • cofty

    I intend for this to be one of a series of bite-sized OPs on the evidence for evolution.

    Introduction to DNA
    Genes are sequences of DNA made up of words (codons) each of which are three letters (bases) long. There are only four letters in the genetic alphabet (ACG&T) Each word or codon is the recipe for one amino acid. There are 20 different amino acids in living organisms. Amino acids are joined together to make protein molecules. We are made of protein molecules.

    The important thing about a protein molecule is not the exact sequence of amino acids, it's simply whether or not it performs its function and that depends on its physical shape. There are many different possible ways to make the same protein molecule and it will still do the same job.

    Some proteins are so vital to life that they are shared by every living thing. These are coded by bits of genetic code that are called ubiquitous genes. An example of such a gene is Cytochrome C which is essential to the function of cellular respiration.

    The number of possible amino acid sequences that would result in a functional Cytochrome C protein molecule has been calculated to be a billion times larger than all the atoms in the known universe.

    If all living things evolved from a common ancestor then we can make a prediction about the differences between the Cytochrome C protein in different species. We would expect them to differ from each other in a predictable way that mirrors their evolutionary history.

    This is exactly what we find.

    The more distant any two species are from each other in evolutionary history the more differences there are in their amino acid sequences. Humans and chimps have identical amino acid sequences in their Cytochrome C proteins. The yeast Candida krusei has 51 amino acid differences from the human sequence. In fact the entire tree of life can be reconstructed by comparing the amino acid sequences of this one protein. And yet any of these proteins can be switched and will work perfectly well.

    This makes absolutely no sense unless every living thing from humans to yeast evolved from a common ancestor.

  • Clambake

    It's like watchtower literature. It a complex bamboozle no one really understands yet somehow it makes you feel about yourself.

  • cofty
    It a complex bamboozle no one really understands

    I'm sorry, tell me which bit you didn't understand and I will try to write it again using smaller words.

  • cofty

    Simple version for Clambake

    There is a little thing in every cell of every living thing on earth that is essential to life. It is slightly different in every species but the amazing thing is that the amount by which it is different is identical to what evolution would predict.

    It is impossible for this to happen by chance - really, really impossible. Therefore evolution is true.

  • notsurewheretogo

    Sorry but I see no "evidently" in your opening post...

    Ergo nothing you have posted can be true...

  • HappyDad

    With all the hundreds if not thousands of posts about evolution, trinity, soul, the true religion, and everything else where posters want to debate scriptures and everything else about God...........at my age (68 and about to be 69 shortly........I really don't give a shit about any controversies anymore.

    I just wat to live the life I have with what time I have left and let the cosmos figure it out when I rot.


    PS...I still enjoy all of your posts on a daily basis even if I dismiss you as a person still searching.

    The best life to you all!

  • cofty
    I really don't give a shit about any controversies anymore

    There is no controversy.

    There are only facts on the one hand and superstitious people who refuse to consider them on the other.

    This series of threads will not help people with a closed mind, nor will it help people who are too lazy to investigate.

    I dismiss you as a person still searching

    If you mean a person who will never be too old to learn new things then yes, but why on earth would that make you dismiss me?

  • Makemeanunbeliever
    Evolution and creation both have their strong points. Common sense leads towards a creator but common sense is not so common anymore. No surprise.
  • cofty
    Evolution and creation both have their strong points

    Creationism has absolutely nothing going for it all. On the other hand evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of objective evidence. The information in the OP of this thread should be enough to convince any rational person. If not, don't worry there is lots more to come.

  • Makemeanunbeliever
    That is your opinion Cofty and your certainly entitled. I am a rational, intelligent and wealthy person. Yet I am not convinced of evolution. I know your type. You have to prove or try to prove something to justify your new belief system. I am ok with that. I am not ok with your attempt at imposing your views on others or belittling them for their belief system.

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