Joseph F. Rutherford and family
According to the CDI, Joseph Franklin Rutherford was born on 11/8/1869 in Missouri and died in San Diego on 1/8/1942. His mother's maiden name was "Strickland". The same source says that his wife Mary M. Rutherford was born on 8/17/1869 in Missouri and died in Los Angeles on 12/17/1962, and that his son Malcolm Cameron Rutherford was born on 11/10/1892 in Missouri and died in Los Angeles on 6/22/1989. His mother's maiden name was "Fetzer". The three also appear mentioned in passport applications and ship passenger manifests. In a passport application dated 2/12/1910, Joseph F. Rutherford declared that he was born in Morgan, Missouri on 11/8/1869, that he was 40 years old and stood 6 feet and 2 inches, and that he would be travelling with his wife Mary M. Rutherford and his son Malcolm C. Rutherford, who was born in Boonville, Missouri on 11/10/1892. Identical information is found in the 7/17/1913 and the 7/27/1920 applications, except the latter adds that his father was James Calvin Rutherford who was then deceased and it includes a letter written by his mother Lenora Rutherford, on 5/21/1920 who declared that she was born in Tennessee, was 77 years old (i.e. born around c. 1843), and currently resides at Versailles, Morgan County, Missouri. She noted that when her son Joseph was born, "there was no official birth records kept amongst the public records, the only record of his birth being made in our family Bible". The first appearance of the Rutherfords in an extant passenger manifest is in the list for the Prinz Friedrich Wilheim, departing Southhampton on 11/2/1913, which mentions Joseph Rutherford, 43, born on 11/8/1869 in Versailles, Missouri, and Mary Rutherford, born on 8/17/1871 (sic) in Hornville, Missouri. Both were residents of 10 Orange Street, Brooklyn, New York. The second reference to them can be found on the manifest for the S. S. Mauretania, departing Liverpool, England, on 9/19/1914, wherein we find Joseph F. Rutherford, 44, born in Versailles, Missouri, on 11/8/1969, his wife Mary M. Rutherford, born in Hornville, Missouri, on 8/17/1871 (sic), and their son Malcolm C. Rutherford, 22, born on 11/10/1892. Joseph Rutherford thereafter appears in 18 more ship manifests, but never with his wife and only once more with his son Malcolm. On 5/16/1938, Malcolm Rutherford, 48, and his wife Pauline Rutherford, 41, were passengers arriving in Los Angeles, California aboard the S. S. Mariposa, along with Joseph F. Rutherford, Berta Peale, and Matthew Howlett (Bonnie Heath and William Heath had been on the same ship but returned on the S. S. Matsonia).
In the 1880 census, in Haw Creek, Morgan, Missouri, lived James Rutherford, 43, a farmer born in Missouri, Lanora Rutherford, 37 (i.e. born around c. 1843), born in Tennassee, and children Virginia Rutherford, 20, who was employed as a teacher, Anna Rutherford, 19, Salena Rutherford, 17, William Rutherford, 15, Florence Rutherford, 13, Joseph Rutherford, 11, and Bertie Rutherford, 4. Similar information is presented by Richard Felix in his booklet Rutherford Uncovered, published in 1940:
"The Rutherford family came from Morgan County, Missouri. James Colvin [sic] Rutherford and his good wife, Lenora Strickland Rutherford, the parents of our 'Judge' lived all their married life of nearly fifty years on the little farm that they owned three and one-half miles north of Versailles, Missouri. They were honest, hard-working people, respected by everyone. Both were active members of the Freedom Baptist Church located less than a mile from their home and it is in the little cemetary near that church where both lie buried.
"The father died July 11, 1912. The mother passed away October 9, 1926. The mother was an invalid the last three years of her life. At the time of her death she was blind and receiving help from the government in the form of a pension for the blind, as the records of the Probate Court in Versailles will show. The 'Judge' came home and preached a funeral sermon over the remains of his dead mother. The Versailles Leader pronounced it 'an impressive address' [Oct. 15, 1926].
"James Rutherford and his wife reared a family of eight children, three sons and five daughters. Three of the daughters, Mrs. Flora Chism, Mrs. Lena McDaniels, and Mrs. Anna Neville, are now dead. Of the two daughters still living, Mrs. Ella Newkirk resides in Tipton, Missouri and Mrs. Virginia Ross in Versailles, Missouri. W. P. Rutherford, the oldest son, died in the West a few years ago, I am told. The youngest son, James B., commonly called Bert, was living in Kansas City at the time of his mother's death. Our 'Judge', the second son in the family, was born November 8, 1869.
This source refers to Virginia Rutherford Ross, Anna Rutherford Neville, Lena Rutherford McDaniels (= Salena), W. P. Rutherford (= William), Flora Rutherford Chism (= Florence), James B. Rutherford (= Bertie), and notes that James Calvin Rutherford died on 7/11/1912 and Lenora Strickland Rutherford died on 10/9/1926. Unfortunately, the 1890 census has been lost, but there are several records from the 1890s mentioning JF Rutherford, including a photo and profile in an 1891 issue of the National Stenographer (see photo below), and various Boonville court records (which are summarized in Felix's booklet). According to the National Stenographer, Rutherford was then "official court reporter in the First Judicial Circuit of Missouri, located at Boonville. He received his shorthand education at the Normal Shorthand Institute, Carbondale, Ill." (p. 275). Felix notes that Rutherford received a license to practice law in Missouri on 5/5/1892, was cited for contempt of court on 8/8/1894, and again on 5/15/1895. Another record from 2/17/1897 notes that Hon. D. H. Shakleford, the regular judge of the Cooper County court in Boonville, was unable to hold session on that day so Hon. J. F. Rutherford was elected "special judge for this turn of court".
According to the 1/1/1892 issue of the Boonville Weekly Advertiser, Joseph F. Rutherford married Mary Fetzer (= Mary M. Rutherford) on 12/30/1891. The ceremony was performed at the Fetzer home by Rev. Gauss from the local Presbyterian church. The 1870 census mentions a physician named John Fetzer, 46, born in Wirtemberg, Germany, living in Boonville, Cooper, Missouri with his wife Mary Fetzer, 36, who was born in Hanover, Germany. John Fetzer appears to have been somewhat wealthy; the value of his real estate was $15,000 and the value of his personal estate was $300. They had four children: Anna Fetzer, 16, a son F. Fetzer (= Fred Fetzer), 15, a daughter R. Fetzer, 4, and another daughter M. Fetzer, 10 months. This last person is Mary Fetzer, who would have been born in 1869. According to the 1880 census, John Fetzer, 55, a physician and native of Westenberg, Germany, lived in Rolla, Phelps, Missouri, with Mary Fetzer, 44, born in Hanover, Germany, and one daughter, Mary Fetzer, 11. Interestingly, Mary Rutherford declared in later censuses that her mother was from France. I'm not sure if this is accounted for by a post-WWI change in borders and if Hanover at one point was part of Belgium. The Fetzers also had a white live-in servant named Hannah Prigg, 18, who was born in Ohio. According to another source, Dr. John Fetzer was a surgeon in the 5th regiment of the Union Army and experienced partial deafness during the Civil War, for which he received a regular pension. He died in 1884 and likely never met Mary's future husband. The birth of Malcolm C. Rutherford, moreover, was announced in the 11/11/1892 issue of the Boonville Weekly Advertiser: "Born to Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Rutherford, yesterday morning, a twelve pound Democrat. Joe tells us that the first thing the young man said, was 'Hurrah for Cleveland' " (via Athanasius). Rutherford had campaigned for Cleveland in Boonville and Cleveland was elected President on 11/8/1892.
In the 1900 census, there lived on Trigg Street, Boonville, Cooper, Missouri, J. F. Rutherford, 30, born in November 1869 in Missouri, who was employed as a lawyer, Mrs. May Rutherford [sic], 29, born in August 1870 in Missouri, and Malcolm C. Rutherford, 7, born on November 1892 in Missouri. Joseph and Mary had been married for 8 years, according to the census. In the 1910 census, the Rutherfords lived near Bethel in Brooklyn, Kings, New York; the roster lists Joseph F. Rutherford, 40, employed as "Attorney -- Bible & Tract Soc.", Mary F. Rutherford, 39, born in Missouri, and Malcolm C. Rutherford, 17, who was employed as "Mail Clerk -- Bible & Tract Soc." Joseph and Mary declare themselves to have been married for 18 years. Their apartment building was filled with other Bible Students employed at Bethel, including a "Compositor", two "Clerks", a "Minister", two "Shipping Clerks", and a "Sexton". In the following year, a photo of Malcolm appeared in the 1911 Souvenir Convention Report (presented above). Also on 6/15/1917, Malcolm Cameron Rutherford, 24, filled out his WWI Draft Card, at which time he lived at 128 N. Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, California. He states that he was born on 11/10/1892 in Boonville, Missouri. Malcolm was then a bookkeeper and clerk for H. G. Pangborn and Co. in Los Angeles. Significantly, he claimed an exemption from the draft as "Member of Bible Students Assn.", so he was still a Bible Student at the time.
In the 1920 census, Rutherford was no longer living with his wife. He appears on the roster for 124 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, New York, and his job title is given as "Minister -- Bible Society". At 128 N. Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, California lived Mary Rutherford, 50, born in Missouri (whose father was indicated as born in Germany and whose mother was indicated as born in France). She indicated herself as still married and she was not otherwise employed. Malcolm meanwhile lived a few houses down on the same street. At 124 N. Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, California lived Malcolm Rutherford, 26, born in Missouri and who was employed as an "Attorney at Law", and his wife Pauline Rutherford, 23, who was born in Missouri. There are several other references to Malcolm and his wife in the California Voter Registration Index. In the index for 1924, Malcolm C. Rutherford of 124 N. Eastlake Avenue registered as a Republican, and he described his job as "rptr", i.e. court reporter. In the index for 1926, Malcolm C. Rutherford and Mrs. Pauline S. Rutherford of 124 Eastlake Avenue registered as Republicans and Malcolm indicated that he was employed as a "crt clrk", i.e. court clerk. In the index for 1928, Malcolm C. Rutherford and Mrs. Pauline S. Rutherford of 6246 Drexel Avenue, Los Angeles, California registered as Republicans and Malcolm indicated his profession as "clrk", i.e. clerk. The information in the 1930 registration was identical. There was one final registration in 1946 when Malcolm C. Rutherford of 2207 Laverna Avenue, Los Angeles, California registered as a Republican. Since Bible Students did not take part in politics, this data indicates that Malcolm ceased being a Bible Student sometime betwen 1917 and 1924.
Joseph Rutherford appears twice in the 1930 census (at 124 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, Kings, New York and at 4440 Braeburn Road, Kensington, San Diego, California), and this information will be presented in the next section. At 160 N. Primrose Avenue, Monrovia, Los Angeles, California lived Mary M. Rutherford, 61, who was born in Missouri (whose father was born in Germany and her mother born in France), and who indicated that she was married but lived alone in a house valued at $5,000. This house was located less than a mile from the famous Pottenger Sanatorium which was at 600 N. Canyon Road, Monrovia, Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1903, the Pottenger Sanitorium was devoted to the treatment of pulmonary disorders. Rutherford contracted severe pneumonia and pleurisy in 1919 and at the time was under the care of homœopathist John Wesley Coolidge of Los Angeles, California, who "treated" Rutherford by having him wear a radioactive belt containing radium, as Rutherford writes in the 6/23/1920 issue of Golden Age. According to the 1975 Yearbook, Rutherford moved to California to live with his family when he developed pneumonia and "became so ill that his survival was in question," and he developed complications that "stayed with him for the rest of his earthly life" (p. 120). Specifically he developed pneumococcal arthritis and ankylosis (as indicated in the 5/5/1937 issue of the Golden Age), which led to his therapeutic relationship with San Diego chiropractor Alta Graham Eckols (see below), who among other things prescribed him liquor to "treat" his condition. It was thus likely in the early 1920s when Mary and Joseph Rutherford moved to Monrovia, Los Angeles, California, presumably so Rutherford could seek treatment at the Pottenger Sanatorium. The construction of Beth Sarim in San Diego in 1929 as Rutherford's winter home, on the other hand, indicates that Rutherford no longer spent his winters in Monrovia (and with his wife) by the late 1920s. The evidence shows that Rutherford was already closely associated with Eckols by 1927. Meanwhile, according to the 1930 census, Malcolm C. Rutherford, 37, and Pauline S. Rutherford, 33, resided at 6246 Drexel Avenue, Los Angeles, California. Malcolm indicated that his job was "Clerk -- Superior Court". As far as Pauline is concerned, the CDI indicates that her full name was Pauline Short Rutherford, her mother's maiden name was "Reed", she was born on 8/12/1896 in Missouri, and she died in Los Angeles on 8/29/1948.
The death certificate for Joseph Franklin Rutherford, dated 2/6/1942, indicates that he died of rectal carcinoma on 1/8/1942 at 4440 Braeburn Road, San Diego, California, and that his wife at the time of his death was Mary M. Rutherford, 72. As for Mary Rutherford, her obituary appeared on p. 1 of the Boonville Advertiser on 2/15/1963, which was as follows: "Word has been received here of the recent death of Mrs. Mary Rutherford, 93, former resident of Boonville, who had made her home in Monrovia, Calif., for the past 40 years. Until poor health confined her to her home, she took an active part in the ministerial work of Jehovah's Witnesses. Her husband, whose death occurred a number of years ago, served as president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society from 1917 until 1942. Mrs. Rutherford accompanied him frequently to many different foreign countries. Surviving are a son and daughter-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm C. Rutherford, of Arcadia, Calif. Paul L. Sergeants, minister of the Arcadia, Calif., Jehovah's Witnesses, officiated at the funeral service. Burial was in Live Oak Memorial Park in Monrovia". This source indicates that Malcolm remarried, although it does not give his wife's name. It also indicates that Mary lived in Monrovia since c. 1923. We otherwise know that Mary moved to Monrovia between 1920 and 1930. Athanasius has a source who apparently knew Mary Rutherford in her later years:
If the Boonville Advertiser is correct, Mary Rutherford lived in Monrovia, California beginning in 1923. This is where she lived when my friend CW met her in the early 1950s. Though Mary accompanied JFR on several European tours before World War I, she was not included in the Judge's post war entourage. As Mary told CW, when Joe would come out to California he would spend his time at Beth Sarim with his mistress and would never visit his wife, who lived just 100 miles away from the San Diego mansion.
And RR has this to say about Malcolm around the time he died:
Malcolm Rutherford died about 10/15 years or, He was in his 90s. He NEVER spoke of his involvement with the Watchtower. In fact, he split right after his father became president. He lived a hermits life, moving around from place to place so that "apostates" could not find him. He hated his father from what I was told from those who knew him personally. I knew a few Bible Students who grew up with him. At the time he died, he was renting a room in a private home. A few days later "apostates" went to visit the home and tried to gain access to his personal belongings. The owner of the house told them she would contact them AFTER she went through his things. She donated everything to goodwill. A friend of mine eventually found his Bible in a used bookstore. In it was the name of Judge Rutherford, as it was his personal copy. Poor guy just wanted to be left alone! But I'm sure he had some juicy stories to tell.
The Balko family
The Balkos were the caretakers of Beth Sarim in San Diego, California in the 1930s. The family consisted of August Henry Balko, Jr., his wife Blanch Poleson Balko, and their two children Princess Bonnie Caroline Balko and Prince Joseph Barak Balko. The Texas Birth Index indicates that Bonnie Caroline Balko was born on 11/18/1929 in Harris, Texas to August Henry Balko and Blanch Poleson Harbole [sic], indicating that their daughter was named "Bonnie" before the Balkos moved to Beth Sarim and lived with Bonnie Boyd. According to the Texas Death Index, August Balko Jr. died in Harris, Texas on 4/15/1973. It also indicates that Blanch's father Clark Harbolt died in Harris, Texas on 6/10/1965, and her mother Carrie Louise I. Harbolt died in Harris, Texas on 4/15/1962. These are the only references I can find for the Balkos and their family in the indices. Joseph and Bonnie may still be alive today.
In the 1900 census, there lived in Swiss Alps, Fayette, Texas, August Balko, 50, who was born in Germany in February 1850, his wife Bertha Balko, 51, who was born in Germany in April 1849, their son Bruno Balko, 25, born in Texas on October 1874, a daughter Silvia Balko, 19, born in Texas in December 1880, Alma Balko, 18, born in Texas in May 1882, Louis Balko, 16, born in Texas in February 1884, Alfred Balko, 14, born in Texas on September 1885, August Balko Jr., 12, born in Texas in December 1887, and finally Henry Balko, 9, born in Texas in January 1891. August Balko Sr. and Bertha immigrated in 1870 and had been married for 25 years, so they got married in c. 1874-1875. August Sr. worked as a farmer, and all the children except for Henry worked as farm laborers. As for Blanch, she was not born yet, but her father appears in the 1900 census as a private stationed in Cottabato, Mindanao, Philippines. There we find Clark P. Harbolt, 22, born in Ohio in February 1878. The Ohio Soldiers in the War with Spain lists him as a member of the 7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company M.
By the time we get to the 1910 census, August H. Balko, 22, was no longer living with his parents but was a boarder living at 72 Livook Street, Fayetteville, Fayette, Texas at the family of butcher Arnhold Prause with three other boarders. He was employed as a "freight agent". August H. Balko, Sr., meanwhile, had moved to Longworth, Fisher, Texas. Also in the 1910 census we find a Blanch Harbolt, 5, born in Missouri in c. 1905, who was living in Canal Dover, Tuscarawas, Ohio with her parents Clark P. Harbolt, 30, (born in Ohio with his own parents born in Germany and Wales) and Carrie Harbolt, 30, who was born in Texas (with her own parents born in Germany and Texas). Clark and Carrie indicated that they had been married for 6 years, so they married c. 1904, and Carrie also indicated that this was her second marriage. Blanch also had two younger siblings, Victor Harbolt, 3, born in Ohio and Maud H. Harbolt, 11 months, also born in Ohio. August and Clark also submitted draft cards in 1917 and 1918. In his WWI Draft Card, Clark Poleson Harbolt, 40, indicated that he was living at 511 St. Charles Street, Houston, Harris, Texas, and was born on 2/2/1878. He also indicated that his wife was Carrie Louise Harbolt, living at the same address, and that he worked as a switchman for a RR. As for August Henry Balko, 29, he indicated on 6/4/1917 that he lived at 3510 Beauchamp Street, Houston, Harris, Texas and was born in La Grange, Fayette, Texas on 12/21/1887. So by 1918, both August H. Balko Jr. and Blach P. Harbolt were living in the same town. August also stated that he was employed as a clerk at Producers' Oil Co. in Houston, and had a younger sister (named Betty?) living with him. Most significantly, he claimed an exemption from the draft on the grounds of being a "Millenium Dawnist". This proves that August H. Balko, Jr. was already a Bible Student. I checked to see whether he had other siblings who were Bible Students, but the draft cards for Alfred August Balko (resident of Electra, Wichita, Texas, and born on 9/23/1885) and Henry Ferdinand Balko (resident of Houston, Harris, Texas, born on 1/21/1891) do not claim similar exemptions.
In the 1920 census, at 511 St. Charles, Houston, Harris, Texas, lived Clark Harbolt, 41, born in Ohio, Carrie Harbolt, 40, born in Texas (whose parents were born in Switzerland), Blanche Harbolt [sic], 15, born in Missouri, Victor Harbolt, 12, born in Ohio, and Maud Harbolt, 10, born in Ohio. Also living them was Carrie's father Joseph Isaa[c] (there is a hole in the document), 72, born in Switzerland, who immigrated to the US in 1863 and who was naturalized in 1869. This fits with Carrie's death record, which indicates that her maiden surname began with "I". With this information, I was able to find Carrie in the 1880 census. The ennumeration list for Houston, Harris, Texas mentioned Joseph Isaac, 33, a carpenter who immigrated from Switzerland, married to Caroline Isaac, 20, and who had a daugher Elizabeth Isaac, 5, a son Edward Isaac, 3, and another daughter, our Carrie Isaac, 1. Getting back to the 1920 census, we also find that August Balko, 67, then widowed and who had immigrated from Germany, lived with his daughter Selma Burgess, 39, (= Alma Balko, born in May 1882), in Orange Ward 3, Orange, Texas. Meanwhile, the other August Balko, 31 (actually he should have been 32 years old), was back at his birthplace, La Grange, Fayette, Texas, where he was a boarder at a hotel (so this may have only been a temporary location). He was employed as "Agent -- RR Office" and was still single.
In the 1930 census, August Balko Sr., 78, who immigrated from Germany in 1870, lived in Precinct 7, Fisher, Texas with his daughter Augusta Strahel, 54, who was born in Texas and married to Charles Strahel. This suggests that August H. Balko Jr. had another older sister, née Augusta Balko, who was born c. 1875-1876, and who would have then already moved out from the Balko household by the time of the 1900 census. In the same census, Clark Harbolt, 53, who was a switchman at a steam railroad and who was born in Ohio, lived at 4319 Gibson Street, Houston, Harris, Texas, with his wife Carrie Harbolt, 51, his son Don Victor Harbolt, 23, who was born in Ohio and who worked as a clerk at a steam railroad, and his father-in-law Joseph Isaac, Sr., 83, who was born in Switzerland and who immigrated in 1869. Meanwhile, at 4440 Braeburn Road, Kensington, San Diego, California lived:
- August H. Balko, 40, born in Texas (whose parents were born in Germany), who was employed as "Caretaker -- Watchtower". He also indicated that he first got married at age 32, i.e. 1920-1921.
- Blanch P. Balko, 25, born in Missouri (whose father was born in Ohio and whose mother was born in Texas), who was employed as "Cook -- Private family". Blanch indicated that she first got married at age 16, i.e. c. 1921.
- Bonnie C. Balko, 4 months, born in Texas. Since the census was taken on 4/8/1930, an age of 4 months points to a date of birth between 11/9/1929 and 12/7/1929, and indeed Bonnie's birth record indicates that she was born on 11/18/1929 in Harris, Texas.
- Joseph F. Rutherford, 60, born in Missouri, who indicated that he was married and employed as "Writer -- Editor". Interestingly, Rutherford was listed as the owner of the property, which was valued at either $25,000 or $85,000 (the number looks like either a "2" or "8"). This value was much, much higher than other homes in the neighborhood. Most of the homes ranged in value between $5000-6500. In connection with this, it is worth quoting from Walter F. Salter's letter:
"Your further abode at San Diego, for which you yourself told me you were offered $75,000.00, but of course it could not be sold and the funds used to help the pioneers because it was deeded to David -- what hypocrisy! ... At the time I was relieved of my duties there was not only a large sum in the bank as customary but also over $25,000.00 in cash was lying in the Society's vaults at 40 Irwin Avenue and had for years, which could be used for the needs of the President or those whom he might designate in case of an international emergency -- and the dear pioneers? Well, of course they could go hungry" (dated 4/1/1937).
- Bonnie Boyd, 31, born in Iowa, who was employed as "Secretary -- Bible Tract Society".
- Donald Haslett, 34, born in New York, who was employed as "Secretary -- Bible Tract Society".
Finally, it is worth mentioning some of the other San Diego people involved in the purchase and construction of Beth Sarim. Dr. Alta G. Eckols was a chiropractor in San Diego who treated Rutherford's pulmonary disease at least since 1926. If Rutherford attended the Pottenger Sanatorium in Monrovia, Los Angeles, California in the early 1920s, he may have switched to Dr. Eckols' care either due to a fallout with his wife Mary or dissatisfacation with the care at the Pottenger Sanatorium. According to the CDI, Alta Graham Eckols was born on 4/21/1878 in Illinois, his mother's maiden name was Odum, and he died in San Diego, California on 10/4/1954. The CDI also reports that Albert Ernest Eckols was born in Illinois on 3/9/1904 and died in San Diego on 5/10/1940, as well as the fact that his mother's maiden surname was "Gillam". There is a WWI Draft Card for Alta Graham Eckols, 40, of San Antonio, Bexar, Texas, dated 9/12/1918. Alta indicated that he was born on 4/21/1878, worked as a solicitor for Paul Laundry Co., and was married to Marie Caroline Eckols.
A letter published in the 4/27/1921 issue of the Golden Age reports that Dr. A. G. Eckols of San Diego and Dr. F. D. Irish were "arrested, tried and convicted by the medics for having practiced Chiropractic without obtaining a license from the State Medical Board, and they were supposed to be sentenced on 4/16/1921, but in 1922 Dr. Eckols was advertising his services as a chiropractor in the San Diego City Directory (p. 1). On 9/22/1927, Alta Eckols, 49, was listed on the passenger list of the S. S. Ile de France departing Plymouth, England, aboard with Bonnie Boyd, 39, and Robert J. Martin, 49. Alta indicated that he was born in 1878 in Old Frankfort, Illinois and he gave his address as 330 Union Building, San Diego, California. He gave the same information on the ship list for the S. S. Rotterdam, departing Southampton, England on 8/8/1929, except that he more exactly gave his birthdate as 4/21/1878. In the 1930 census, Alta G. Eckols, 51, was living at 3686 28th Street, San Diego, California with his wife Martha G. Eckols, 42, and their son Duane A. Eckols, 7. Alta gave his profession as "Physician -- Chiropractor" and indicated that he owned his home, which was valued at $9,000. He also indicated that he was born in Missouri and his father was born in Ireland and his mother in Illinois. Meanwhile his son Albert Ernest Eckols, 26, who was instrumental in the purchase of Beth Sarim, lived at 4181 35th St., San Diego, California, with his wife Meriel Eckols, 24, and his daughter Joanne M. Eckols, 6. Albert indicated that he was born in Illinois, that he first got married at age 19 (i.e. in c. 1923), that he owned his home which was valued at $5,000, and that he worked as "Doctor -- Chiropractor". Since Joanne was born in California, Albert had been a California resident for at least 6 years. The voter registration rolls are also revealing. Alta registered to vote in 1924, but then was absent from the rolls for 1926, 1928, 1930, 1934, 1936, 1938, and 1940. If he became a Bible Student, this suggests that he converted between 1924 and 1926 (which fits in pretty well with when Rutherford came into his care). The situation however was altogether different with Albert. He registered as a Democrat in 1926, 1928, 1934, and 1936, and his wife Meriel registered first without party affiliation in 1928 and then as a Republican in 1930 and 1934. So if Alta became a Bible Student, it doesn't appear that his son did as well. So Albert's involvement with the Beth Sarim affair was probably motivated not by religious concerns but by either personal (friendship) or business concerns. Another interesting finding is that two years after Meriel last registered as a Republican, she was replaced in 1936 by Mrs. Ruth B. Eckols (registered as a Democrat) in the rolls who indicated that she lived at the same address as Albert. So Albert was either widowed or divorced between 1934 and 1936 (and then he himself died in 1940). Finally, although Alta was missing from the rolls for the preceding 20 years, he suddenly appears again in the 1944 registration, where he registered as a Democrat. So does this suggest that Alta did not remain a JW after Rutherford's death, but perhaps became "apostate" (assuming of course that he was a Bible Student/JW earlier)?
Bonnie Boyd and family
According to the SSDI, Bonnie Heath (SSN: 260-19-4045) was born on 7/17/1904 and died in Atlanta, Dekalb, Georgia in August 1979. Bonnie also appears in 17 passenger lists for international trips taken with Rutherford in the 1920s and 1930s and (from 1937 onward) with Bill Heath. These records give her name as Bonnie Boyd until 1938 and indicate that she was born in Waterloo, Iowa and lived at 124 Columbia Heights, Kings, New York. The date of her birth however varies widely between sources. She starts out claiming a DOB of 7/17/1896 and it gradually crept upward to 7/17/1898, then up to 7/17/1900, 7/17/1901, 7/17/1902, 7/17/1903, before finally settling on 7/17/1904 (the same DOB given in the SSDI and presumably given on her death certificate). But an interview she gave in the 2/18/1942 issue of the San Diego Union, Bonnie claimed to be Rutherford's "adopted daughter" and indicated that she had been with him continuously since age 16. Since Bonnie first came to Bethel in 1923, this points to a DOB as late as 1907. Bonnie was so successful in covering up her true age (which would have involved the falsification of her age on government documents like her passport), that it is impossible to be certain when she was born. I am convinced however that the evidence best points to her actual DOB as 7/17/1896: (1) this was the original DOB she claimed in 1924-1926, before her age began to drift younger, (2) it was also still claimed as late as 1938, and (3) the 1910 census (and probably the 1900 census) points to this DOB and there are the only documents that predate Bonnie's later age misrepresentation. If this is the case, then the longer she was associated with Rutherford, the younger she portrayed herself as being -- eventually shaving off nearly a decade from her age. On the assumption that her true DOB was 7/17/1896, here is a table of the 17 ship manifests that mention Bonnie during her association with Rutherford (along with her mention in the 1930 census), with the discrepency with her true age noted:
Bonnie's mother appears in the Texas Death Index as Victoria Boyd, who died in Bexar, Texas on 5/6/1944. From other sources, it appears that her full name was Victoria Pauling Boyd. She first appears in the 1880 census, residing at 125 Washington New 7th Street, Waterloo, Black Hawk, Iowa. At that address lived John Pauling, 41, who was born in Scotland and who worked as a tailor, Anice Pauling, 35, who was born in Canada, May Pauling, 16, who was born in Canada, Georgia Pauling, 14, who was born in Illinois, John Pauling, 12, his younger sister Margaret Pauling, 10, our Victoria Pauling, 8, Nora Pauling, 6, and finally Charles Pauling, 1. All the younger siblings of Georgia were born in Iowa. These data also suggest that John and Anice got married in Canada shortly before 1864, then moved to the U.S. and lived in Illinois around c. 1866, and then moved to Iowa by 1868. Then in the 1885 Iowa State Census, John Pauling, 46, is indicated as living on Washington New 7th Street, Waterloo, Black Hawk, Iowa, who was born in Scotland and who worked as a "merchant tailor", with his wife Annie Pauling, 40, who was born in Canada, and their children May E. Pauling, 26, who worked as a "music teacher", Georgie Anna Pauling, 18, John G. Pauling, 16, Maggie Pauling, 14, Victoria Pauling, 12, Nora Pauling, 10, and Charles Pauling, 6.
Then in the 1895 Iowa State Census, we learn that in Waterloo, Black Hawk, Iowa lived John K. Boyd, 27, born in Washington, Iowa, Victoria Boyd, 22, born in Black Hawk, Iowa, and their son Glen Boyd, 4, born in Washington, Iowa. Next we have the 1900 census. At 629 Randolph Street 6th, Waterloo, Black Hawk, Iowa, lived John Boyd, 33, who was born on May 1867 in Iowa (whose father was born in Ohio and whose mother was born in Indiana), and who worked as a "House Painter", his wife Victoria Boyd, 28, who was born on May 1872 in Iowa (whose father was born in Ireland and whose mother was born in Canada), Gen Boyd [sic], 9, who was born in January 1891 in Iowa, Marjorie Boyd, 3, born in July 1896 in Iowa, and Jean Boyd, 3 months, born in December 1899 in Iowa. John and Victoria had been married for 11 years, i.e. born around 1888-1889. At the same address lived John Boyd's sister-in-law Lenore Pauline [sic], 24, who was born in March 1876 in Iowa, and whose profession was "Stenographer -- At School". She is clearly the same person as Nora Pauling, who was 10 years old in the 1885 Iowa State Census. Meanwhile, Victoria's parents were living in Minnosota. In the 1900 census, there was a John Pauling, 61, born in October 1838 in Scotland (whose parents were born in Scotland and Ireland), living in Hinckley, Pine, Minnesota, with his wife Hanise Pauling, 55, born in July 1844 in Canada-Eng. (whose parents were also born in Canada-Eng.), with their sons Charles Pauling, 22, born in Nov. [?] 1878 in Iowa (whose parents were born in Scotland and Canada-Eng.) and John Pauling, 31, born in October 1868 in Iowa. All of this matches the info in the 1880 census very closely. John Pauling Jr. was already married to Annie Pauling (born in April 1874 in New York), 26, and they had a son named Douglas Pauling, born in Iowa in March 1892. Now compare the information in the 1910 census. Victoria Boyd and her family have now moved up to Minnesota as well, about 74 miles away from where her parents now lived. In St. Paul, Ramsey, Minnesota lived John Boyd, 42, born in Iowa whose parents were born in Indiana, Victoria Boyd, 34, born in Iowa (whose parents were born in Iowa [sic]), Glen Boyd, 18, born in Iowa, Bonnie Boyd, 13, born in Iowa, and Jean Boyd, 11, born in Iowa. Notice that Bonnie here is indicated as 13 years old, i.e. born in 1896-1897. When we compare the information from the 1900 census, we see that there was a "Marjorie Boyd", born in July 1896. This corresponds to the DOB of 7/17/1896 that was claimed by Bonnie in the first several years of passports (along as in several later passports). Notice also that "Marjorie" is missing in the 1910 census and that Bonnie takes her place. So this suggests that Bonnie was born in July 1896 and was originally named Marjorie, perhaps Bonnie Marjorie Boyd.
Next we have the WWI Draft Card of John Glen Boyd, 26, who on 6/6/1917 lived in Temple, Bell, Texas with his mother; he was born on 1/20/1891 (compare with the January 1891 date in the 1900 census) in Riverside, Washington, Iowa (compare the 1895 census which claims that "Glen Boyd" was born in Washingon, Iowa). He stated his job as "R R Switchman," the same profession as Clark Poleson Harbolt, who incidentally lived in Houston, Harris, Texas, about 171 miles away. However three years later Glen's mother Victoria was living in the same town as Clark and Blanch Harbolt. At 2019 Rusk Street, Houston, Harris, Texas lived Gene Shelton, i.e. Jean Boyd Shelton, 19, who was already divorced, born in Iowa, and who had a baby named Jack Shelton (9 months). Interestingly, her job was "Stenographer", the same job that her aunt Lenora Pauling had, and the same job that Bonnie would take up during her association with Rutherford. At the same address lived her mother Victoria Boyd, 37 [sic], widowed, who was born in Iowa and whose parents were born in Ireland. It seems that the census taker misheard "47" as "37". Blanch Harbolt lived at 511 St. Charles, Houston, Harris, Texas, which was only 8 blocks or a third of a mile away from Victoria Boyd:
This strongly suggests that Victoria and/or Bonnie Boyd were acquaintances with Blanch Harbolt Balko back in Texas (probably as members of the same Bible Student congregation), long before Beth Sarim was built. As for John G. Boyd, 27, he lived at 1211 Milan Street, Houston, Harris, Texas (about 14 miles away from where Victoria lived) with his wife Irene Boyd, 19, born in Illinois. As in his WWI Draft Card, John's occupation was "Switchman -- Railroad". The one discrepency is that the census taker indicated that he was born in Minnesota, but this likely reflects the fact that he had earlier lived in this state. Since he worked as a switchman on a railroad in Houston, he possibly knew Blanch's father through his job. Interestingly, John and Irene roomed with Pearl Spell, 27, and Bessie Spell, 25, who worked as stenographers. Unfortunately, I have been unable to locate Bonnie Boyd at all in the 1920 census. There is one indication however that she did live in Houston for a time -- in the 1931 passenger manifest for the S. S. President Hoover (departing New York on 11/12/1931), Bonnie gave her birthplace as "Huston", Texas.
We learn in Bonnie's testimony in the Moyle trial that she first came to Bethel in 1923 with her mom at William E. Van Amburgh's invitation (pp. 1364-1365), after attending a convention where Van Amburgh was apparently present. This could either have been the convention held in St. Paul, Ramsey, Minnesota on 5/4-5/6/1923 or in Chicago, Cook, Illinois on 5/11-5/13/1923 (Watchtower, 7/15/1923, p. 213). The Minnesota convention seems probable because this is where Bonnie lived in 1910. Since she did not appear in the 1920 census, it is theoretically possible that she remained in Minnesota while her mother moved to Texas. It seems more likely however that Bonnie and Victoria both moved to Texas, and then went back north to attend the convention. Then in the 1930 census, we find Virginia P. Boyd, 56, mentioned as living at 124 Columbia Heights, Kings, New York. She indicated that she was born in Iowa (with her father born in Scotland and her mother in Canada) and was widowed. Bonnie, meanwhile appeared at two addresses in the same census, as noted above, at 124 Columbia Heights and at 4440 Braeburn Road, San Diego, California. Then, as noted above, we find that the Texas Death Index mentions that Victoria Boyd died in Bexar, Texas on 5/6/1944. And the ship passenger manifest for the Q.E.T.V. Queen of Bermuda (departing the Bermuda Islands on 7/19/1950) lists Bonnie Heath, 45, born in Iowa, and William P. Heath Jr., 46, born in Georgia, as then living in Julian, California.
William P. Heath, Jr. and family
Unfortunately, William Pratt Heath, Jr. does not appear in the CDI and SSDI indices, but he does appear in five ship passenger lists, two of which contain detailed biographical data. According to the manifests for the S. S. Normandie (departing Le Havre, France, on 8/25/1937) and the S. S. Mariposa (departing Sydney, Australia, on 4/29/1938), William Heath was born on 11/17/1903 in Atlanta, Georgia. He also gave his residence address as 206 Lambeth Road, Baltimore, Maryland in the 1937 list and 4440 Braeburn Road, San Diego, California in the 1938 list.
Genealogical data available from various sources show that Heath's great-grandfather Reverend Nathaniel Alpheus Pratt was born on 1/29/1796 in Saybrook, Essex, Connecticut, married Catherine Barrington King on 3/1/1830 and died on 8/30/1879 in Roswell, Cobb, Georgia. Catherine, meanwhile, was the daughter of Roswell King (founder of the city of Roswell, Georgia) and was born on 7/21/1810 in St. Simons, Glynn, Georgia. They had eight children, the youngest of which was Catherine Quintard Pratt (some sources give her middle name as "Quinland", but this appears to have been incorrect), born on 11/10/1850 in Darien, Fulton, Georgia. She appears in the 1860 census as C. Q. Pratt, 9, daughter of N. A. Pratt, 64, who indicated that he was born in Connectict and worked as a "Minister", and Catherine B. Pratt, 50, all residing in Roswell, Cobb, Georgia. Then in c. 1875 the younger Catherine married Alfred Taylor Heath, Sr. in Roswell, Cobb, Georgia. Alfred was born in c. 1849 in Florida and worked as a farmer. He appeared in the 1850 census as the son of Marcus D. L. Heath, 31, who worked as a lawyer and Mary J. Heath, 23. He had an older brother Albert S. Heath, 3, and an older sister Eliza A. Heath, 5 (cf. Eliza Ansley Whitta, 32, Mary's sister, living at the same address). All lived in Marietta, Cobb, Georgia. He also appears in the 1870 census as Alfred T. Heath, 23, living with his mother Mary J. Heath, 50, and working as a farm hand in Subdivision 163, Newton, Georgia. Then he married Catherine Quintard Pratt in c. 1875, and they had the following children: William Pratt Heath, Sr., born in 1875, Natalie Heath, born in 1877, Eliza A. Heath, born in 1879, and Alfred Taylor Heath, Jr., born in 1884. The 1880 census mentions the following family living in Roswell, Cobb, Georgia: Alfred T. Heath, 32, born in Florida and who worked as a farmer, Katie Q. Heath, 29, and their children Willie P. Heath, 4, Natalie Heath, 3, Eliza A. Heath, 9 months, and also Katie's sister Anna Pratt, 36. Finally, according to the 1900 census, there lived at 255 Ashby Street, Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia: Alfred T. Heath, 51, born in March 1849 in Florida and who worked as a "Traveling Salesman", his wife Katie Heath, 49, born in November 1850 in Georgia, their son Willie P. Heath, 21, born in July 1877 [sic], who worked as a "Chemist", Nattilie Heath [sic], 21, born in Feburary 1878, Eleisa Heath [sic], 18, born in September 1881 [sic], Alfred T. Heath, Jr., 16, born in September 1883 [sic], and finally Katie's sister Anna Pratt, 54, born in April 1846.
The precise birthdate of William Pratt Heath, Sr. is given in two ship passenger lists: both manifests for the S. S. President Monroe (departing Balboa, Spain, on 4/22/1927) and the S. S. Europa (departing Cherbourg, France on 7/16/1930) indicate that William Heath was born in 7/17/1875 in Roswell, Cobb, Georgia. The Heaths were prominent Atlanta socialites and they were mentioned frequently in the Atlanta Constitution newspaper. The 10/23/1900 issue announced that Susie Taylor, daughter of Mrs. Mary Taylor, was engaged to Mr. William Pratt Heath, and their wedding was due to take place on 11/14/1900 at the Park Street Methodist Church in Atlanta, Georgia (p. 11). From the two ship manifests mentioned above, we learn that Susie Heath (née Susie Taylor) was born on 8/15/1879 in Knoxville, Knox, Tennessee. The 10/28/1900issue of the newspaper also noted that "Mr. Heath is a well-known chemist who is rapidly advancing in his profession" and noted that Mr. A. T. Heath was the best man, Miss Caroline Howell was the maid of honor, Miss Elise Heath was a bridesmaid, and Mr. Micajah Taylor was an usher (p. 23; cf. the notice of the wedding in the 11/14/1900 issue, p. 11). The couple planned to spend their honeymoon in Florida, where Heath's father had been born. Then a few years later, the Atlanta Constitution reported that William's younger sister Natalie Heath was getting married to Mr. Arthur J. Merrill on 6/8/1903 at West End Presbyterian Church (5/14/1903 issue, p. 8). The 6/5/1903 issue reported that Mrs. George Pratt "entertained at a flinch party in compliment to Miss Nathalie Heath and Mr. Merrill", including such guests as Miss Elsie Heath, Miss Annie D. Howell, Miss Mary Howell, Miss Emma Pratt, Mr. William Pratt Heath and his wife Susie, and Mr. A. J. Merrill (p. 8). Then just a few weeks later, the newspaper reported that William's younger brother Alfred Taylor Heath Jr. was marrying Miss Annie Darling Howell at the home of the bride's father Colonel Albert Howell, Sr. at West End in Atlanta, Georgia on that very day, 6/23/1903 (p. 5; a more detailed account of the wedding was published on 6/24/1904, p. 2). Alfred and Annie planned to move to Chattooga, Georgia after their wedding. After that, a fairly lengthy account of the Pratt family is given in the 10/8/1905 issue of the Atlanta Constitution:
"Then there is the family of Pratt, who were in the Roswell colony of people, coming from the coast country, along with the Bullochs, Kings, Dunwoodys, and Joneses, when they settled at the place called Roswell before the civil war. The elder Pratt [i.e. Rev. Nathaniel A. Pratt] was a Presbyterian preacher, and he was also one of the officiating ministers at the marriage of Mr. [Theodore] Roosevelt and Miss Mittie Bullock. The Pratts are connected with the Bullochs and Dunwoodys by marriages of the members of the families. Captain Charles A. Pratt, of this city, a civil engineer, has children. One of his daughters married Mr. Elzie B. Thomas, physician, and lecturer in the Eclectic Medical College in this city. Captain Pratt's sister married Captain Alfred T. Heath, living on Ashby street, in West End, in this city. One son of Captain Heath, William P. Heath, married the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. M. Taylor of West end. Another son, A. T. Heath, Jr. married a daughter [i.e. Annie Howell] of Colonel Albert Howell, Sr. of West End" (p. 4).
The reference here is to President Theodore Roosevelt's parents Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831-1877) and Mittie Bulloch (1824-1884), who were married by William Pratt Heath, Sr.'s grandfather Nathaniel Alpheus Pratt; this is one indication of how prominent the family was. Next, the 3/25/1906 issue of the Atlanta Constitution mentions that Mr. Alfred Taylor Heath, Jr. had a child Dorothy Heath who attended a family reunion with them (p. 2). Finally, we come to the first reference to William Pratt Heath, Jr., the future husband of Bonnie Boyd, in the 2/28/1906 issue of the Atlanta Constitution (who would have been 2 years old at the time): "Mrs. Mary Taylor and Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Heath, Master William Heath, and Mrs. A. T. Heath have returned from Florida" (p. 2).
As mentioned in the 1900 census and the 10/28/1900 issue of the Atlanta Constitution, William Pratt Heath, Sr. was employed as a chemist in Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia. He was mentioned in similar terms in the Wall Street Journal: "N. P. Pratt, a sulphuric acid manufacturer from Atlanta, and W. P. Heath, an expert chemist, are at the Washoe smelter as special agents of the Government to investigate the feasibility of establishing a plant for the manufacture of sulphuric acid" (in the 4/23/1909 issue, p. 2). According to one biography, Nathaniel Palmer Pratt was born in Milledgeville, Baldwin, Georgia on 8/16/1858 and he graduated in June 1878 from Washington and Lee University in Virginia, and founded the N. P. Pratt Laboratory in 1890. N. P. Pratt and W. P. Heath, Sr. were first cousins once removed, both descended from Nathaniel Alpheus Pratt; the chemist N. P. Pratt's father was Nathaniel Alpheus Pratt, Jr. (born on 1/25/1834 in Darien, Macintosh, Georgia) whereas W. P. Heath, Sr.'s grandmother was N. A. Pratt Jr.'s sister Catherine Quintard Pratt (mentioned above). During the Taft administration, N. P. Pratt was appointed by the attorney general as an agent reporting on the operations of the Anaconda Mining Company in Montana. As the chief chemist for N. P. Pratt, William P. Heath Sr. eventually came to work for The Coca-Cola Co, based in Atlanta, Georgia. The article "History of the Coca-Cola Bottler's Association" by Ralph B. Beach, from the April 2004 issue of The Bottling Line (No. 297), describes some of the early work that Heath did for the company:
"After much correspondence in late 1913, the Association got under way March 7, 1914, when a group of 25 bottlers of Coca-Cola formed the Association in the office of Harold Hirsch, General Counsel of The Coca-Cola Company, who for the next ten years was 'Legal Representative' for the Association, its affairs being conducted from his law offices in the Candler building in Atlanta. Its first officers were Crawford Johnson, Birmingham, President; J. C. Pidgeon, Memphis, Vice President; and Arthur Montgomery, Atlanta, Secretary and Treasurer. Number one membership went to W. K. Rand, Durham Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Durham, North Carolina, and this company has retained its membership continuously for the entire 45 years of the Association’s existence. Dr. W. P. Heath, then Chief Chemist of N. P. Pratt Laboratory, was employed by the Association from 1914 until The Coca-Cola Company employed him on a full-time basis. During his employment by the Association, he was available as a consultant to members of the Association, and during that period he prepared a series of bulletins on such subjects as: How to Obtain Quality, Sanitation in Bottling Plants and Cleanliness" (p. 6)
Afterwards becoming the chief chemist for The Coca-Cola Co., Heath probably played an important role in refining the trademarked formula of the soft drink. Already in 1902, he analyzed the syrup to determine how much cocaine it contained at the time: "By Heath's calculation, the amount of ecgonine [an alkaloid in the coca leaf that could be synthesized to create cocaine] was infinitesimal: no more than one part in 50 million. In an entire year's supply of 25-odd million gallons of Coca-Cola syrup, Heath figured, there might be six-hundredths of an ounce of cocaine" (quoted from http://www.snopes.com/cokelore/cocaine.asp).
In the 1910 census, there lived at 255 Ashby Street, Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia, William P. Heath, 34, born in Georgia and employed as "Chemist -- Laboratory", his wife Susie T. Heath, 30, born in Tennessee, his son William P. Heath, Jr., 6, born in Georgia, his daughter Susette B. Heath, 1 year & 8 months, his mother Kate Heath, 60, and his aunt Anna Pratt, 65. We can see here that William Jr. now had a younger sister Susette. According to the SSDI, she was born on 8/20/1908 and died in Southampton, Suffolk, New York, on 6/26/2001. However, the ship passenger list for the S. S. George Washington (departing from Cherbourg, France on 9/5/1929) indicates that Susette B. Heath was born on 8/20/1909 in Atlanta, Georgia. The data from the 1910 census suggests that the 1908 date is the correct one. Also in the 1910 census, there lived in Dirttown, Chattooga, Georgia, Alfred T. Heath, 29 [sic], his wife Anna Heath, 26, his two daughters Dorothy Heath, 5, and Margelia Heath, 2. In his WWI Draft Card (dated 9/10/1918), Alfred T. Heath, 36, indicated that he was born on 9/27/1882, married to Annie D. Heath, was employed as "V. P. of [illegible] Co.", and was residing in Augusta, Richmond, Georgia. However, I do know from the Sumter County Museum that Alfred T. Heath, Jr. started working for Coca-Cola in 1913 and he purchased the already-existing Carolina Coca-Cola Bottling Co. franchise in 1918. In his WWI Draft Card (dated 9/12/1918), William Pratt Heath, 43, indicated that was born on 7/17/1875, employed at "W. P. Pratt Laboratory" as "V. P. & Secy. Tres." (at 90 Auburn Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia), married to Mrs. Susie Heath, and residing at 255 Ashby Street in Atlanta.
According to the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, Susan Taylor Heath was originally a Presbyterian, but in his testimony in the Olin Moyle trial, William Jr. indicated that she became a Bible Student in 1915 or so (p. 1259). Subsequent to this, the 6/15/1925 issue of the Watchtower published a letter written by Mrs. Susan T. Heath of Georgia, wherein she expressed the following thanks to Rutherford: "My prayers are with you each day and often I long to express love and sympathy, but would not add one straw to the great burden you carry" (p. 191). William Jr. was about 13 years old or so when his mother converted to the new faith, and thus was likely raised as a Bible Student along with his sister Susette.
In the 1920 census, we find that at 270 Goshen Street, Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia, lived William P. Heath, 44, who was employed as "Vice President -- Cola Soft Drink", his wife Susan Heath, 40, his son William Heath, 16, and his daughter Sussett Heath [sic], 11. According to the 1927 Annual Report to Stockholders of The Coca-Cola Company, W. P. Heath was listed as one of the five Vice Presidents of the company (p. 9), and he appears with the same position in the reports for 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1947 (I do not have access to reports for the other years, and so he likely was a Coca-Cola vice president as early as 1920). He was absent for the first time in the report of 1948, suggesting that he either retired or passed away in 1947-1948. The book For God, Country, and Coca-Cola (written by Mark Pendergrast) also mentions an incident from 1925 when "Harrison Jones, accompanied by company chemist W. P. Heath and a lawyer" drove to Mexico to unsuccessfully confront a competitor soft-drink company that was issuing soda under the trademarked Coca-Cola name (p. 168). Meanwhile, the same 1920 census shows that in Sumter, Sumter, South Carolina, lived Alfred T. Heath, 38, who was born in Georgia and worked as "Manufacturer - Coca Cola", his wife Annie D. Heath, 36, and their children Dorothy Ann Heath, 14, Marjorie Heath, 11, Fred Heath (= Alfred Taylor Heath III), 9, Quintard Heath, 8, Barrington Heath, 6, and William Heath, 5. This last son was otherwise known as William Schley Heath (born on 12/7/1914 according to the SSDI), who would later follow his father's footsteps as an executive officer in the company. As mentioned above, Alfred T. Heath, Jr. purchased the Carolina Coca-Cola Bottling Co. division in 1918.
By 1930, it appears that William Pratt Heath Sr. had moved to a new address in Atlanta; the ship passenger list for the S. S. Washington (departing Cherbourg, France on 9/5/1929) indicated that Susan T. Heath and Susette B. Heath lived at 2734 Peach Tree Street, Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia, in September of 1929. Susette's name also indicates that she was as yet unmarried. However, the 1930 census, which was taken on 4/22/1930, indicates that Susette was newly married, so she must have had her wedding sometime between 9/5/1929 and 4/22/1930. At 2895 Peach Tree Street, Buckhead, Fulton, Georgia, lived Eugene R. Black Jr., 31, born in Georgia and who worked as "Representative - Bond House", his wife Susette H. Black, 21, his daughter Elizabeth B. Black (= Elizabeth Betty Black), 10, and his son Eugene R. Black III, 5. This was thus Eugene's second marriage and Susette became the stepmother to his children. Susette indicated that she was 21 when she was first married (which was the same age she was at the time, i.e. she was a newlywed), whereas Eugene indicated that he first married at 19, i.e. around 1917. We know from the SSDI and other sources that Eugene Robert Black was born on 5/1/1898 and Eugene Robert Black III was born on 7/19/1924 in Atlanta. Further information about his previous marriage can be obtained from the 1920 census: At 29 Peach Tree Street, Atlanta, Fulton, Georgia lived Eugene Black Junior, 23, who was born in Georgia and worked as "Agent - Stock & Bond Corp.", his wife Elizabeth Blalock Black, 23, and their daughter Betty Black, 7 months. Further information can be obtained from the ship passenger record of the S. S. Olympic (departing Cherbourg, France, on 9/1/1926), which lists Eugene Black, 28, born on 5/1/1898 in Atlanta, Georgia and Elizabeth Blalcok Black [sic], 29, born on 12/15/1896 in Atlanta, Georgia; both indicated that they lived at 1356 Peach Tree Street (presumably in Atlanta, although the record apparently errs in stating the location in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Susette's husband Eugene R. Black, Jr. was a highly successful businessman, who would later serve as president of the World Bank from 1949 to 1962. The following is a brief resume of his career:
Eugene R. Black was a courtly Georgian who became one of the world's most influential figures as President of the World Bank from 1949-1962. Mr. Black was 93 years old when he died in 1991. The future World Banker was born on May 1, 1898 in Atlanta and graduated in 1917 from The University of Georgia. He later served in the Navy in World War I and then joined the Atlanta office of Harris Forbes & Company, a New York bond and banking house. The banking community respected him for his knowledge of the bond market. In 1947, Mr. Black joined the World Bank as Executive Director for the United States. In his 13 years as President of the World Bank, Mr. Black built that international organization from 48 member nations with a capital base of $8.3 billion to 80 with a capital base of $20.5 billion.
Also his father Eugene R. Black, Sr. served two terms on the Federal Reserve of Atlanta in 1928-1934 and played an important advisory role in the FDR administration. That Susette, a faithful Bible Student, married such a successful and powerful businessman, who came to be the brother-in-law of one of the directors of the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, is especially ironic considering Rutherford's incessant polemic about "Big Business". In a post in the previous thread, Gamaliel posted some interesting personal reminiscenes of Eugene and Susette Black from a somewhat later time:
I have met Eugene R Black, Jr and his wife Susette Heath Black. I have stayed at their house. The last time my wife and I saw them was at their granddaughter's wedding in Southampton, Long Island, about 1980. This is the daughter of William H Black, the younger son of both E. R. Black, Jr and Susette -- not Eugene R. Black Jr's older son, E. R. Black III.
The granddaughter's name is Abigail. I also knew her mother and brothers fairly well. In fact, I spent some time with Abby and her friends almost every weekend for about three years. I had taken the trip out to Southampton to visit Abby and her younger brother while I was at Bethel in Brooklyn. I've spent the night there more than once, and even learned to water ski behind one of their boats with Abby's oldest brother, William, at the helm. I attended the same congregation, Brooklyn Heights, and the Tuesday night book study at their Brooklyn home, a waterfront brownstone on Columbia Heights, just up the street from Bethel at 124/107 Columbia Heights. You rarely saw Abby's father around the JWs at all, and would not often see her older brother at meetings. But she and her younger brother were (are?) active JWs, as well as her mother. I found the mother to be a most interesting woman. She's an excellent conversationalist, well-read, with interests that went well beyond most JWs.
I don't know all the details of their history with JWs, but I assume that Susette Heath Black tried to make sure her son grew up as a JW, and marry a JW. But these were not your average JWs, of course. For example, I was shown where Einstien and other famous people had visited. I've stayed in a guesthouse nicer than houses I grew up in. The family actually had two houses in Southampton when I visited, and maybe one in Easthampton. This is among some of the nicest property on Long Island.
By the way, if any of you listen to the old recorded White House phone recordings of President L.B.Johnson as sometimes played on CSPAN, you may notice that Johnson discussed offering a White House appointment for Eugene R Black, Jr. Johnson discussed this with with Robert S McNamara, Sec of Defense. Curiously, McNamara himself went on to take over the presidency of the World Bank, 5 or 6 yers after Eugene Black....
Athanasius also posted the following interesting information about Susette that he obtained from a former Bethelite:
One of Bonnie's sisters [sic, actually sister-in-law], a JW, married a man by the name of Black. He was at one time president of The World Bank. She entertained diplomats and politicians placing WT books with them. I remember her telling her physician, a JW, about her experiences witnessing to those in the world of wealth and power."
As for Susette's parents, they lived on Andrews Drive in Buckhead, Fulton, Georgia when the 1930 census was taken, which mentions a William P. Heath, 54, born in Georgia and worked as "Vice President - Beverage Mfg." and his wife Susan Heath, 50, born in Tennessee. The house they owned was valued at $35,000. And William P. Heath Jr. (future husband of Bonnie Boyd) had by this time moved to South Carolina where he lived near his uncle Alfred. According to the 1930 census, at 1505 Hampton Avenue, Camden, Kershaw, South Carolina lived William P. Heath, 26, born in Georgia and who worked as "Manager -- Bottling Plant" and his wife Dorothy S. Heath, 25, who was a native of South Carolina. This reveals that William's marriage to Bonnie was his second marriage, and that he worked as a manager of a Coca-Cola bottling plant -- presumably the same one owned by his uncle. Both William and Dorothy indicated that their age at first marriage was the same as their current age, i.e. they were newlyweds at the time, just as it was the case with his sister Susette. Who was his bride Dorothy? She was born Dorothy Smith, the daughter of prominent South Carolina legislator, lawyer and orator Mendel Lafayette Smith (born on 7/5/1870 in Smithville, Brunswick, South Carolina and who died on 6/15/1934) and Anna Dixon Smith. According to one source, Mendel Smith's daughter was "Mrs. WP Heath, Jr.", and in the 1920 census, we find that at 516 Chestnut Street, Camden, Kershaw, South Carolina lived Mendel Lafayette Smith, 49, who was born in South Carolina and who worked as "Lawyer -- General Practice", Anna Dixon Smith, 43, Dorothy Rembert Smith, 16, Mendel Lafayette Smith Jr., 20, and Bennie Smith, 18. The 1930 census shows that Mendel L. and Anna D. Smith, with their son Mendel, 29, who worked as a real estate agent, continued to live at the same address. So William P. Heath, Jr. and the Smith family lived in the same town of Camden, Kershaw, South Carolina in 1930, in fact they lived only a few blocks apart (see map below). As for William's uncle Alfred, he still lived in the town of Sumter, Sumter, South Carolina, which was located about 28 miles from Camden. The village of Rembert located between Camden and Sumter has the same name as Dorothy's original middle name. In the 1930 census, at 428 Main Street, Sumter, Sumter, South Carolina lived Alfred T. Heath, 48, who was born in Georgia and who worked as "President -- Coca Cola", his wife Anne Heath, 46, and their son William Heath, 15.
But as we all know, William P. Heath, Jr. did not remain married to Dorothy, and neither did he pursue a career in the Coca-Cola busines. We know from his testimony in the Olin Moyle trial that he was baptized as a Jehovah's Witness in 1932 and met Rutherford for the first time in 1934 (recall that Mendel L. Smith died on 6/15/1934), and that he was invited to Bethel to serve as Rutherford's personal secretary in June 1937. Subsequent to this, he divorced his wife Dorothy in January 1938 and married Bonnie Boyd in Las Vegas, Clark, Nevada on 1/25/1938. As for Dorothy, she also remarried. According to the website for the Camden Archives and Museum, we learn that Dorothy Smith Heath was the second wife of Onan A. Hydrick (whose first wife was Josephine Liebling), who passed away on 9/23/1983. The SSDI and the relevant WWI Draft Card indicate that Onan Andrew Hydrick was born on 10/6/1888 and died in Swansea, Lexington, South Carolina in August 1983. He was registered with the US National Guard in 1925 with the rank of "Major" in the 118th Infantry Regiment, QH Columbia Company. According to the 1930 census, Onan Hydrick, 41, who worked as a lawyer for the Veterans Bureau, was living in Bethesda, Montgomory, South Carolina with his wife Josephine Hydrick, 40, and their children J. Lawton Hydrick, 16, and Claude Hydrick, 7. The Hydricks had earlier lived in Pennsylvania, for that is where J. Lawton was born. It is unclear when Dorothy married Onan.
Athanasius also reported the following information about William P. Heath Sr. and his son, as related by his informant, a former Bethelite:
Last week a former Bethelite told me that William Heath Sr., though not a JW, was a friend of Rutherford. The former Bethelite also said that hidden in the Bethel archives is a film of JFR and Heath Sr. walking together and viewing the construction of Beth Shan. The film is in black and white and was probably made around 1939 or 1940... A former Bethelite sent me some interesting information regarding the Heaths. It seems that Joe Lubeck, showed his personal film to the entire Bethel family on Family night sometime in the 1980s or early 1990s. According to my friend:
"Lubeck said he was the gardener and handyman at Beth Shan when he was young. The film showed Rutherford walking with an old man who Lubeck identified as Mr. Heath, president of Coca Cola, who Lubeck said financed and gave as a gift to Rutherford, Beth Shan. Lubeck was emphatic when he stressed that Watchtower had nothing to do with the building of Beth Shan. He definitely stated that this gentleman was not a JW. Most Bethelites who saw the film were shocked because the majority did not know there was a place called Beth Shan in WT history, including most people in the Executive Offices. This was a topic of conversation for days after the film was shown. Joe Lubeck's wife was named Rose. He may still be alive living at Bethel.
"Also, a relative of Bonnie Heath told me that she lived out her later years in Atlanta, GA. This shows that the early connection of Heaths to Georgia continued until Wm and Bonnie's death.
"That same relative told me that Mr. Heath gave Rutherford his Cadillac cars that were parked in Beth Sarim's garage. It is well documented that Bonnie's husband was always Rutherford's driver of the cars. Also, I was told that Bonnie's husband had no money at that time because Coca Cola had been sold. Bonnie's husband was known to be a drunk! Perhaps support of Bonnie and Wm Heath by Rutherford and the Watchtower, later on, continued because of the gift of Beth Shan to Rutherford by Mr. Heath Sr. It is not inconceivable that an arrangement was set up and the Heaths received regular monthly checks from the WT until death because WT is very loyal to those who were part of the inner group in the early years during tough times. To this day, very few people know that certain ex-Bethelites receive money as special pioneers although they do not pioneer. The money is a reward for spending years of faithfulness in Bethel in a prominent position, but had to leave because of illness, etc.
As for the nephew of William Jr., William S. Heath, he began to work for Carolina Coca-Cola Bottling Co. in 1936, and succeeded his father as President of the company. According to the PR Newswire of 10/22/1998, Heath was still "President of Carolina Coca-Cola" in 1998 when the company merged with Coca-Cola Bottling Co. (Nasdaq: COKE). Then Heath passed away on 8/6/1999 in Sumter, Sumter, South Carolina, as the SSDI shows. As for Eugene Black III, the stepson of Susette Heath Black, his passing was noted in an obituary published on 8/10/2000 in the New York Times:
"Eugene R. Black, an investment banker, government adviser and off-Broadway playwright, died on April 24 in Manhattan. He was 75. A message about his death was misdirected within The Times on April 26. Mr. Black, who in recent years lived in East Hampton, N.Y., and Palm Beach, Fla., was chairman of a committee that advised Mayor John V. Lindsay on cultural affairs in 1966. He also headed a government-sponsored group that in 1972 recommended changes in New York City's regulation of theaters. He was chairman of the Circle in the Square Theater and served on the boards of the Lincoln Center Repertory Company and the Stratford Shakespeare Theater. For many years a general partner in the Wall Street investment firm of Lazard Freres & Company, Mr. Black specialized in international finance and was an adviser to the United States Treasury in the Ford and Carter administrations. In 1980, he became a special assistant to the Secretary of the Interior in Washington and later was an adviser to the Sanwa Bank of Japan. But Mr. Black also began writing plays and novels, often using the pen name Franklyn MacGregor. His plays included "The Cleansing of George Cuthbert," a comedy produced in New York in 1998, and "Camelot Lost," a drama about Marilyn Monroe, produced in Boca Raton, Fla., in 1999. Eugene Robert Black was born July 19, 1924, in Atlanta. He was named after his father, the president of the World Bank from 1949 to 1962, and his grandfather, who was chairman of the Federal Reserve in 1933 and 1934. He graduated from Yale, served as a lieutenant in the Marine Corps in World War II and later studied at Oxford University. He is survived by his wife, Susanne Hardwick Black; two daughters, Susan Black Allen of New York and Brittany Black of Palm Beach; a son, E. Robert Black of Beaufort, N.C.; a sister, Elizabeth Black Campbell; a brother, William H. Black of Southampton, N.Y.; his stepmother, Susette Heath Black; and two grandchildren" (p. C-22).
As for Susette, she passed away on 6/26/2001 in Southampton, Suffolk, New York, according to the SSDI.
Berta L. Peale and family
According to the SSDI, Berta Peale was born in 10/30/1901 and died on May 1973 in Long Beach, Los Angeles, California. Her SSN was 550-42-2857. The CDI states that Berta L. Peale was born on 10/30/1901 in North Carolina and died on 5/12/1973 in Los Angeles. Berta also appears in three ship passenger manifests. She is listed on the manifest for the S. S. Normandie, departing Le Havre, France on 8/25/1937 as Berta Peale, 35, born on 10/30/1901 in Bethel, North Carolina, and who then was living at 2311 North Haven Blvd., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. The second manifest is for the S. S. Mariposa, arriving in Los Angeles from Honolulu on 5/16/1938, and there the only relevant information is her age, given as 35, i.e. born in c. 1902. Then she appeared on the manifest for the S. S. Queen Mary, departing Southampton on 9/14/1938, and there she was listed as Berta L. Peale, 36, born in Bethel, North Carolina on 10/30/1901 and whose residence address is given as 124 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, New York.
Berta first appears in the 1910 census. In Poplar Point, Martin, North Carolina lived a William J. Teel, 46, i.e. born in c. 1864, who was employed as a farmer, his wife Willie A. Teel, 45, i.e. born in c. 1865, and their children Franklin L. Teel, 21, George F. Teel, 19, Carrie J. Teel, 14, Annie R. Teel, 11, Bertie R. Teel, 9, and Lona E. Teel, 6. An age of 9 puts Berta's birth around 1901. Franklin and George were employed at the home farm. One final piece of information is that both William and Willie were indicated as married for 24 years, so presumably they were married around 1886. Unfortunately, I was not able to find this family in the 1900 census.
In the 1920 census, Miss Berta Teel was living with her sisters Lona E. Teel, Georgie R. Teel (sp.?), and Carrie Denton, as well as with her brother-in-law Frank S. Denton, 27, and her widowed mother Williean Teel, 55, at 257 Franz Place, Akron, Summit, Ohio. All were born in North Carolina. Berta's age was given as 19, i.e. born in c. 1901. Carrie was the oldest sister, at 24, Georgie was 21, Berta was 19, and Lona was the youngest at 16. Here "Georgie" appears in the place of "Annie" (they have the same initial "R", i.e. "Rae"). Berta's father was 55 years old at the time, widowed, and unemployed. Frank S. Denton, born in North Carolina around c. 1893, appears to have been the main wage-earner in the household and he was a carpenter. Georgie was also employed as a secretary, and Berta worked as a clerk in the post office. Meanwhile, at 808 Carlysle Street, Akron, Ohio, lived Berta's older brother Mr. George F. Teel, 29, with his wife Ferol M. Teel, 25. Both were born in North Carolina, and George worked as a tire curer at the rubber factory. They had two kids: Joseph Teel, who was born in North Carolina, and 10-month-old Albert Teel who was born in Ohio. Since Joseph was 37 months old (i.e. 3 years and 1 month), and since the date of the census was 1/6/1920, this fixes the date when the Teels moved to Ohio to between December 1916 and March 1919. In fact, this date can be narrowed further. There is a WWI Draft Card, dated 6/15/1917, for George Ferran Teel, 26, born on 9/3/1890 in Bethel, North Carolina, who at the time was living at 653 Coventry Street, Akron, Summit, Ohio, and who was employed as a rubber-worker at the Goodyear Tire Co. So this suggests that George Teel at least moved out to Ohio between December 1916 and June 1917. The Teels however did not move to Ohio all at the same time. The WWI Draft Card for Frank Leslie Teel, 28, who was born on 6/25/1888 in Bethel, North Carolina, indicates that was still living in Goldsboro, Wayne, North Carolina with a wife and two children. Interestingly, his occupation was indicated as organizer of Modern Workmen of America, a southern fraternal organization. He is not mentioned in the 1920 census as far as I can tell.
At the same time, Berta's future husband Alfred L. Peale lived at 500 Scheck Street, Akron, Ohio, within 5-6 miles of the two Teel residences. He was 27 years old, i.e. born c. 1892-1893, and he was born in New Jersey with his two parents born in Germany. He worked at a machinist at the rubber factory, which raises the possibility that he got to know Berta through her brother George. He however was married at the time to Mary Peale, 23, who was born in Pennsylvania, and Alfred lived with his brother John Peale, 28, who was also born in New Jersey, and his sister-in-law Bessie Ruech, 28, who was married at the time to Albert Ruech, 30, and they also had a daughter Betty Ruech, 4. Further information about Alfred can be obtained from his WWI Draft Card. This document, dated 6/5/1917, mentions an Alfred Loomis Peale, 24, living at 205 Second Avenue, Highland Park, Middlesex, New Jersey, who was born on 1/17/1892 in Newark, New Jersey. At the time he was a machinist and tool maker for Simplex Auto Co. in New Brunswick, New Jersey. At the time he was unmarried, of medium height and slender build, with brown hair and light grey eyes. So he must have married Mary in between 1917 and 1920, and he also must have moved out to Ohio during the same timeframe as well. I don't know what happened to Mary -- whether she and Alfred divorced, or whether she had died. We otherwise know that Berta married Alfred around 1922. There is no trace of this Mary Peale (who was born in New Jersey in c. 1897) in the public records, so I suspect that she died sometime before this.
We next find Berta in the 1930 census. At Cuyahoga Falls, Summit, Ohio, lived Alfred L. Peale, 38, born in New Jersey, who was married to Berta L. Peale, 27, who was born in North Carolina. Alfred owned the house where they lived, which was valued at $6000, and he was a machinist at the rubber factory. Another important datum is that Alfred's age when he first got married was specified as 27, whereas Berta's age at first marriage was specified as 20. This means that Alfred married Mary around c. 1919 (which fits with date range of 1917-1920 indicated above), whereas Berta married Alfred around c. 1922. Finally, while Berta was employed in a clerical job in 1920, she is here indicated as not employed at the time. The same census contains further information about Berta's siblings. At 937 North Main Street, Akron, Summit, Ohio, we find Frank Teel, 42, born in North Carolina, and who was employed in trucking, married to Mary Teel, 28, born in Ohio, and four children: Leslie W. Teel, 16, Caroll E. Teel, 14, Mary V. Teel, 8, and Betty L. Teel, 2 1/2. Leslie and Caroll were born in North Carolina, whereas Mary and Betty were born in Ohio. This again points to sometime between 1916-1922 when the Teels moved to Ohio. Mary Virginia Teel (born on 3/2/1922 according to the SSDI), moreover, was the mother of larc. So Berta was larc's aunt by being the sister of larc's grandfather Frank. Meanwhile, in 1930 Berta's mother was living with her sister Lona. At 3073 West Bailey Road, Cuyahoga Falls, Summit, Ohio lived widowed Willa A. Teel, 65, born in North Carolina, with Lona E. Grigsby, 26, born in North Carolina, her husband Lewis A. Grigsby, 30, born in Ohio, who was a clerk at the rubber factory, and her two children Albert W. Grigsby, 4, and Mark J. Grigsby, 1 1/2, both born in Ohio. Meanwhile, at 1039 Collinwood Avenue, Akron, Summit, Ohio lived Elmer Thornton, 43, his wife Lucy Thornton, 28, and his son Leonard E. Thornton, 11, and Ruth Thornton, 9. Leonard (born on 1/5/1919 according to the SSDI) would later marry Mary Virginia and become the father of larc.
Here are some personal reminiscenes by larc regarding many of the people mentioned here (with comments of my own in brackets):
Berta was born in Pitt County, North Carolina, outside of Greenville. Her brother Frank was married in Edgecombe County in 1915. Berta probably lived with him and his wife. Frank's first son was born in Pitt County, so the family may have moved back there before 1920 .... Frank's sons were Carrole and Leslie. I had the same problem finding records when I took a trip to North Carolina. Frank filled out the application for his brother's marriage license. On it, he wrote, FS Teel. ....Frank was the oldest in the family. He had a brother, George, and four sisters, Rae, Lona, Carrie and Berta. He had two sons Carroll and Leslie and a daughter, Virginia, or, Mary Virginia, my mother. Frank did live on North Main Street in Akron. I had been there many times in my childhood. My mother's mother died when she was 35 years old of tuberculosis. Rae and Lona told my mother who was five [or 13?] at the time, that she would see her mother again in Paradise. Later, Frank remarried, but the marriage did not last long. She was very mean to my mother, the evil step mother.... During the great depression, Frank worked as a crane operator for BF Goodrich, and did also have a moving business, which he lost as a result of the depression. I remember in the '50's he had boxes in his attic of stuff that people wanted moved, but never came back to get it. Frank liked to smoke cigars and I liked the smell of them in his living room. He looked like Winston Churchill. He told me once that if life had been different, he would have become an attorney. He used to make fun of the Witnesses. Regarding hell fire, he said to me on several occasions, regarding hell fire, "we used to believe in the fire works". In North Carolina, he and his mother were responsible for establishing a Methodist church [cf. Frank's job as organizing the Modern Workmen of America in North Carolina]. In Ohio, he never went to church. He told me that he found God in nature.... Frank is my grandfather, he had a brother George, and four sisters, Carrie, Lona, Rae and Berta. He had two sons, Caroll and Leslie, and one daugher, Virginia or Mary Virginia, my mother. The two sons were born in North Carolina. My mother was born in Akron, Ohio.... Frank Denton was Carrie's husband. Carrie spent most of her adult life in a mental hospital after Denton woke up one night and found his wife standing by the bed with a knife in her hand.