Hi LoveUniHateExams. I appreciate your comments and some of the comments of some of the other people also.
I know that fertile human females have XX chromosomes, but I think that some also have a Y chromosome in addition to those. I know some women are XXY and some scientific sources that some of them are fertile. See https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/496996 which says "Individuals with a 47,XXY karyotype usually present with a male
phenotype due to the additional Y chromosome. In this paper, we describe
a 47,XXY female who was pregnant with a fetus of the same karyotype
based on chromosome analysis of amniotic fluid cells." https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11173857/ says "We now describe an SRY-deleted 47,XXY female who has one son and two
daughters, and one of her daughters has the same 47,XXY karyotype."
I know that fertile human males have at least one Y chromosome.
I also know that the the Y chromosome does more than regulate the production of male hormones, for I read in scientific literature pertaining to evolution that the Y chromosome contains genetic code which is identical to a portion of the genetic code of the X chromosome. I also have read in scientific literature that some scientists think the Y chromosome evolved into existence as a mutation of an X chromosome many millions of years ago. For example see https://www.news-medical.net/health/Y-Chromosome-Evolution.aspx . Besides mentioning the evolution of that chromosome, interestingly that article says "In many ectothermic vertebrates, there are no sex chromosomes and in
those who do have sex differences, gender is not determined by sex
chromosomes but by the environment. In reptiles, for example, gender is
selected according to the incubation temperature."
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921885/ says "Classically Y chromosomes are thought to originate from X chromosomes through a process of degeneration and gene loss." It also suggests a different possible means of evolution of the chromosome. See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y_chromosome which says the following.
"The X and Y chromosomes are thought to have evolved from a pair of identical chromosomes, termed autosomes, when an ancestral animal developed an allelic variation, a so-called "sex locus" – simply possessing this allele caused the organism to be male.
The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the
other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time, genes that
were beneficial for males and harmful to (or had no effect on) females
either developed on the Y chromosome or were acquired through the
process of translocation.
Until recently, the X and Y chromosomes were thought to have diverged around 300 million years ago.
However, research published in 2010,
and particularly research published in 2008 documenting the sequencing of the platypus
has suggested that the XY sex-determination system would not have been
present more than 166 million years ago, at the split of the monotremes
from other mammals.
There probably are some functions of the X and Y chromosomes which I don't know about. I notice that adjusted knowledge said "... actual genetic code within their cells ... impacts protein production, enzymes, hormones, etc."
I do realize that a trans-woman can not currently conceive and bear a baby, for she has no ovaries and no uterus, however some sources say that in the future it might be possible to provide them with a transplanted uterus. See https://www.mcgill.ca/channels/channels/news/fertility-frontier-can-transgender-women-get-uterus-transplants-329760 which says in part the following. "Now a new publication in the journal Bioethics makes the case
that research trials should consider including transgender women in this
evolving fertility frontier, not just genetic women – that is, people
with XX chromosomes" regarding receiving a transplant of a uterus. It also says "While still theoretical, it appears that implantation of a donated
uterus and gestation in the body of a transgender individual should pose
no physiological barrier if various conditions are met, according to
Regarding a trans-man I know that if only his own tissues are used to give the appearance of having a penis and testes then he can not impregnate a woman, but I wonder if he can receive a transplanted penis and transplanted testes. There are numerous pictures of naked people (called he-she and she-he and transgender) on the internet that appear to have such, but I wonder if all of them are fake pictures. Perhaps in actual 'sex change' surgeries to make transgender people prostheses are used underneath the skin. A moment ago I noticed that https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/21526-gender-affirmation-confirmation-or-sex-reassignment-surgery says "If you are a transgender man (assigned female at birth or AFAB), you may have surgeries that involve:... Construction of a penis and scrotum (metoidioplasty, phalloplasty and scrotoplasty)." That seems to be cosmetic surgery and thus does not seem to give a person the ability to produce semen. However, https://www.insider.com/doctors-to-perform-worlds-first-penis-transplant-on-transgender-man-2020-10 says the following.
"A team of Massachusetts surgeons is preparing to perform the world's first-ever penis transplant on a transgender man.
the procedure, surgeons would take the penis of a deceased donor and
transfer it onto a transgender patient who was assigned female at birth."
https://www.lgbtqnation.com/2019/12/surgeons-successfully-performed-testicle-transplant-procedure-help-trans-men-one-day/ says the following.
"A 36-year-old cis man born without testicles in Belgrade, Serbia has
just received a testicular transplant from his identical twin brother to
help his body produce its own testosterone and sperm.
It’s only the third such surgery ever to occur in the world, and
doctors say it could eventually be applied to trans men using the
removed testicles of trans women, but ethical and legal concerns could
complicate the matter."
But even if there is no way for a trans-people to currently, or ever, to produce a baby, it should be kept in mind that some genetic biological women have had their uterus, cervix, and/or ovaries removed due to having cancer in one of more of those organs, or some other severe health problem in one or more of those organs. But, they are still considered women.
I agree that at least some "... trans activists are trying to force people to share their particular
views, and demonise [sic] them if they dare to have a different opinion ...".