With Pagan worship the oldest, along with Jewish sects, the catholic church was the church that resulted from Jesus' teachings, and began with Peter.It is not the direct result of Roman Catholic Liturgy, it is a result of a council of christian churches, collectively called catholic.
If you are speaking of the Latin Roman Catholic Church, that was later when there was the beginning of schisms.The Power of the Latin Church wasn't always there, but they did gain power. Eastern Orthodox Catholic Church is also powerful.
The Canon was an attempt to hold the teachings to a universal one instead of the many schisms.So in that respect it was used to control the way the writings were taught. Some writings were not clear that they were actual accounts and true. It wasn't until the late 300's that the Bible canon was decided upon, with all the schisms represented in councils. Until that time there were different books in different churches, all claiming to be teaching as the successor of Peter.
Since that time many different religions have developed with Jesus as a figure but not the messiah, such as Islam, or as a Christian religion such as Protestant, etc.