Hi Cofty,

I do not understand the math of the "59 genes".

The genome of theWhat is the math for these odds?Is it (1/4403)^59?E.Colibacterium contains 4,403 genes made up from 4,639,221 base pairs. So what are the chances of the same mutation happening independently in 2 populations? Fairly low but not unreasonable. So what if we find 2, 3 or 4 mutations the same? Now it’s getting remarkable. But 59 changes in the same genes in both populations! Here is an event, or series of events, that defy stupefying odds that would beggar belief if it were not for the fact that it actually happened in the lab and the evidence is there for any competent scientist to examine.

If so then we have 1 / 6*10^212... i.e. 0.

This is the whole point about the power of natural selection, it achieves things that appear impossible through the step by step accumulation of favourable changes. Both tribes had independently discovered the same 59 mutations out of all the millions of possible changes.Could you expand a bit on this?

Are there certain "evolutionary paths" that "must" be followed? It's almost like there were a limited number of paths and two of the tribes followed the same one...