Xanthippe, I love Peacocks! Here in Japan they are very rare and only live in high elevation meadows. We have to go south to the Nagano Alps (where they once had the winter olympics) to see them.
We have two species of aquilegia (also known as Columbine in the U.S.) in Japan. One is blue and the other is a pale yellow.I planted a hybrid last year in a shady area, but the butterflies here showed no interest. Since butterflies are warmed by the sun, they usually visit flowers where there is good sunlight and avoid flowers in the shade.
Astrantia looks like a lovely flower for butterflies, although I have never seen this flower in Asia or North America. I have never seen Teasels either, but they would look lovely in any natural setting.. Teasels remind of Thistles which are absolutely adored by butterflies and bees.
I planted a bunch of false nettle in my garden to attract the Red Admirals. Their caterpillars are easy to find because they weave together the leaves to make a tent.