The sheer literal stupidity of Clayton Woodworth publishing this article in The Golden Age demands that it be reposted.
This article is in the "Not Even Wrong" category!
*** The Golden Age 1932 August 17, pp.707-710 ***
Gravitation and Electric Energy
By C. F. Stewart
THE subject of gravitation is a very interesting one, especially as it relates to attraction between heavenly bodies. "Attraction of Gravitation Not Universal" (Golden Age, No. 314) seems to be well and truthfully thought out. Therefore, Newton's "universal law of gravitation", that "every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely as the squares of their distance apart", is not true. The variableness of the planets in their orbits proves that the "constant attractive force", necessitated by the universal gravitation theory, is based upon a false premise.
It is said that an atom is composed of one proton and its many or few electrons, depending upon the substance, whether gold, silver, lead, wood, or glass; gold atoms containing many electrons, and wood only a few. The proton is the positive element; the electrons are the negative element. It is claimed that a proton weighs 2,000 times as much as an electron.
An atom is a miniature solar system: the proton is the "sun", and the electrons are the worlds or "planets" whirling arid zigzagging at terrific speed, each in an orbit of its own, around its "sun". If these electrons were to collide, change their course or their speed, it would change the substance. What causes the cohesiveness of the atom It must be electromagnetic energy, a positive and negative force having tremendous affinity, the. proton being the dynamo and the electrons the magnets.
Solar System Is Gigantic Atom
Our solar system is a gigantic atom: the sun is the great and glorious dynamo (proton), spinning on its axis with unthinkable speed, electrically charged to perpetually send out its light, heat, and power; and the planets are the magnets (electrons) which absorb the light, heat, and power which the dynamo sends out, and the absorption is wholly 'dependent upon the valency in each magnet (planet).
The valency of a planet is all important. Each chemical that makes up the bulk of the earth, be it hydrogen, oxygen, bismuth, carbon, gold, silver, copper, lead, or whatnot, has its own drawing power, some more, some less, and the sum of the units makes up earth's valency, its drawing or magnetic power. And at least most of these elements are also found in the moon and other planets, and in the gases of our sun.
All the planets in our solar system swing around the sun in elliptical orbits, the variation of the orbit of Venus being the least in miles, and the orbit of Mercury being the most eccentric; but taking into consideration the great diameter of the orbit of Neptune we find that it is the nearest a perfect circle. As each planet at perihelion and at aphelion is always in the same constellations, regardless of its speed in orbit and distance from the sun, and as these points of closeness and farness from the sun vary from 44 days (Mercury) to 82 years (Neptune), and even more on the newly discovered planets, the gravitational influence is thereby proven to be nil, as far as the universe is concerned.
Causes of Elliptical Movements
The thought of the earth's accumulating magnetic energy as it nears the sun, and discharging that energy as it recedes from the sun, is very illuminating. Therefore, it seems that the density and super-valency of the northern hemisphere is responsible for the elliptical orbit. As the north half of our globe takes the heavier charge, it is the most natural thing that when the earth is under the sun, as in July, it would then recede the farthest from the sun, for then the sun is shining more directly into the northern hemisphere.
At aphelion, greatest distance from the sun, the earth is negative and the sun attracts; at perihelion, closest to the sun, the earth is positive and the sun repels; and at about the mean distance the earth becomes neutral; but, as has been explained, its momentum carries it on and on in its orbit. This also explains the causes underlying the extraordinary atmospheric disturbances during the equinoxes. The earth at neutral would have less power of resistance of any climatic influence than at any other time; the spring equinox is always the worse, because up to that time the earth has been positive and expending its force as does the sun--fighting the sun, as it were.
The theory that sun force in the form of light causes the rotary motion of heavenly bodies may be a correct one. But there must needs have been something to start the rotary motion in the first place, and something that caused the planet to become balanced in its orbit and constant in its axial motion. Every heavenly body was probably "set" spinning and whirling in its place at creation. It must be true that the whirling of the sun and planets on their axes, and also their orbital speeds, have much to do with keeping them in their respective places; for they have "set" places of operation. (Gen. 1: 16, 17) Whether the earth is a direct creation of Jehovah or whether the planets were thrown off from the sun and shot out into space to find their "balance" at the command of God is immaterial, yet for us to incline toward the former view is reasonable.
The electronic energy of the sun makes impingements against the electronic content of our air, and this friction causes light. The earth turning like a ball, up and over from right to left, always speeding eastwardly, the day side of the earth always turning away from the sun and the night side always turning toward the sun, it is very easy to see that the western or back side of the earth should be receiving the greater push and the eastern or front side receiving the lesser push, causing it to keep up its habitual axial motion. And the proof of this lies in the fact that the outer strata of air are always moving eastward at greater speed than is the surface of the earth, apparently trying to keep pace with the more swiftly moving moon.
Light Rays Cause Rotary Motion
We quote from "The Propulsive Power of Light" (Golden Age, No. 324), with approbation, the following:
How can revolution and rotation be caused by the power of light? Well, you probably know, or can understand, that a slow-moving bullet, from a gun, going through a wooden target would cause much more push against the target than a more speedy bullet of the same size. And if a lot of the slower-moving little light bullets [electrons] were striking and going through a fringe of materials around the outer edge on one side of a planet and a lot of swifter-moving little bullets [electrons] were striking and going through the same fringe from the opposite side, there would be more push on the side receiving the slow bullets than on the side receiving the swifter ones. . . Light strikes the side that is turning away from it at a slower speed of impact than it strikes the side that is coming toward it. . . . The light striking the on-coming side goes through quicker. . . than the light striking the receding side. There is consequently much more of a push on the receding side than on the approaching one, and the rotation is thereby kept up.
If light had sufficient propulsive power we should find our moon rotating on its axis. But such is not the case. The moon revolves once each lunar month; that is, it shows all sides to the sun each swing around the earth; but it does not rotate on its axis, for its face (the pointed end) is always toward the earth, and this shows that the affinity these two dead bodies have for each other is very much greater in their electro-magnetic force than any light influence can possibly have, as shown by the upper strata of air following the course of the moon-eastward, and north and south of the equator; and, in a general sense, this is true of all earth's volume of air.
The moon, made up of materials something like our earth, is also a magnet, and has an attraction for the earth, and the supercharge is in the pointed end, which faces the earth, which charge is so heavy that the moon will not rotate, the moon's speed and the centrifugal force of the earth keeping the moon at a respectful distance. The magnetic power of the moon is sufficient to influence not only the earth's air volume, but also the ebb and flow of the mighty tides in our oceans.
The Usefulness of Our Firmament
Besides being useful as something to breathe and maintain life, our firmament, or air cushion around our earth, has other functions. It is very important. The electrical energy that the sun sends to the earth makes no light or heat until it strikes our atmosphere. The electronic content of that energy makes impingements against the electronic content of our atmosphere, setting up friction, and the deeper and the more direct that energy pierces our firmament, traveling 186,300 miles a second, the brighter and warmer it becomes at the earth's surface. This is proven by the fact that the "darkest [and coldest] hour is just before the dawn". While we are in earth's shadow (at night) the stars glisten and sparkle in all their glory; but as soon as the sun's rays begin to pierce the atmosphere above us that portion of our firmament is lighted up, bedimming the stars or neutralizing their light, and gradually, as the earth rotates eastward more of the firmament above is lighted up until all is blackness, for those rays have not yet penetrated the atmosphere in our vicinity; but just as soon as the sunshine begins to illuminate the firmament immediately above us the dawn begins and the darkness is driven away.
All of us know that radio reception is better and freer of static at night than during the day. At night we are in earth's shadow and out of the zone of the sun's rays making impingements against the electronic content of our atmosphere, and therefore the electric energy is more or less "at rest", not agitating the magnetic waves.
It seems reasonable that each planet should have its own gravitational law, according to density and valency, reaching only to its atmospheric boundary. The moon, having no atmosphere, would, therefore, have no gravitational pull, and a loose object, unmagnetized, could not adhere thereto. The earth is too far removed from all other planets to have any appreciable gravitational relation with any of them; hence no planet will ever be pulled into and collide with the earth. The earth being negative (electronic), and objects on the earth being earthy and also negative, so far as their earthly composition is concerned, they have an affinity for each other, and our atmosphere having also an affinity for the earth and pressing upon it with a 15-pound pressure at its surface, causes what we know as "gravitation". At ninety miles above, beyond the confines of our atmosphere, all is deadness, without a gravitational pull. Beyond our atmosphere all is blackness, frigid, inert. Without the "firmament of heaven", our atmosphere, we should be unable to hold on; the firmament (Ps. 19: 1) is the conductor of light, heat, and power--life--enabling us to move about and have, our being. (Acts 17: 28) Without our atmosphere, the earth, traveling through space at the rate of 1,110 miles a second would be as slippery as a peeled onion coated with ice. Our atmosphere, therefore, is earth's pneumatic tire, and the tides are the shock absorbers, 'automobilically' speaking, making our earthship an easy riding vessel.
Causes of Equinoctial Storms
The variation of any planet which swerves slightly from the beaten track is not caused by any gravitational pull, but rather by another planet's passing through the electromagnetic current which plays between such disturbed planet and the sun. Most of our major storms come near new moon, caused by the moon's passing through the electromagnetic influence the sun is sending earthward, thus disturbing our own atmospheric conditions. And, for similar reasons, our equinoctial storms are the more severe, because the full shock to our atmosphere is administered more directly when our sun is over the equator, for then, besides the earth's being neutral, our sun and moon and earth are lined up and centered more directly within the field of electric energy. At other times the sun's rays pierce our atmosphere more or less obliquely.
All the planets in our solar system occupy a narrow zone in their swing around the sun, not unlike a gigantic wheel. Placing ourselves in space, in our mind's eye, away to the north of our system, then looking south we see the sun in the center and all the planets plunging head long from right to left, from west to east, up and over the sun, and from east to west under the sun, at hourly speeds ranging from 12,156 miles to 107,012 miles, the earth's average hourly orbital speed being 66,579 miles.
The north pole of our earth points approximately at the North Star at all times, showing that the axial rotary motion is constant, and whether the sun is north or south of the equator depends entirely upon where the earth is in its orbit. The earth is up, over the sun, in January; hence the direct rays of the sun strike the earth at a point about 23 degrees south of the equator. The sun is the farthest south of the equator December 21, but the earth does not reach its closest point to the sun until about three weeks following this date.
We should not think that the earth "wabbles" and by this action causes the sun to travel 23 1/2 degrees north of the equator in June and the same distance south of the equator in December. No; that is not the way of it. Neither should we think that our solar system lies flat, spread put over a vast plane. No; not that. It is up right like a wheel, "toed" out slightly north of due east. The earth is over the sun in January, and under the sun in July; and, odd as it may seem, the earth is in perihelion (closest to the sun) in January. Everything else being equal the people living south of the equator would have it much hotter in their summer than we have it in ours; but everything else is not equal.
Land has a mean density of about six times that of water, and a much greater valency. The northern hemisphere contains much more land than the southern; hence the magnetic influence of the north half of our earth is greater than that of the south half, as proven by the compass' always pointing north. The water on our globe, with its periodic tidal movements, serves as a minimizer or balancer of moon shock; and the greater volume of water south of the equator serves as a magnetic equalizer, and also is the agency provided by which the southern hemisphere is kept cooler.
As the relationship of the sun and earth is explained in this more satisfactory light, so the philosophy of the movements of other planets, which are similar, becomes more comprehensive. And this is as it should be, for they are all directed and their paths laid out by the same all- wise and loving Creator.
Marvelous Moon Movements
The movements of the moon are marvelous. Photographs teach that the moon is egg-shaped, with the small end eternally pointing toward the earth. It has no axial motion. Its orbit is, of course, around our earth. It is outside earth's orbit between first and third quarter moons. It is inside earth's orbit between third and first quarter moons. It is behind our earth at first quarter. It is right in front of the earth at third quarter. It is at south declination (28 2/3 degrees south of the equator) part of the time. It is at north declination (28 2/3 degrees north of the equator) part of the time. Of necessity its path is in shape a screw, a gigantic elongated cork screw, if you please, with the earth whirling and speeding, untouched by some 240,000 miles, through the middle of this spiral path. All these changes are made in about every twenty-nine days, the lunar month.
From first quarter to third quarter the moon speeds up to overtake and pass in front of the earth, meanwhile the earth seems to slow down in its orbital speed. From third quarter to first quarter the earth seems to speed up, meanwhile the moon floats lazily around into position for another monthly sprint. While the earth is traveling in fourteen days about 22,371,000 miles, the moon, to go from behind at first quarter to in front at third quarter, must travel some 23,000,000 miles ; and while the earth is traveling in the next fifteen days about 24,000,000 miles, the moon must 'slow down' to lose, what it had gained.
The next time you view a full moon overhead imagine our earth and our moon in a race of terrific speed, both traveling parallel, going east, 240,000 miles apart. Note the time; and the next night at the same time you will be able to see the gain the moon has made-about 50, 000 miles.
A very marked peculiarity about the moon which shows divine wisdom in the ordering of its path and the changes incident thereto is that it comes to the full in the north in the winter, giving long bright nights for the benefit of the people in the northern hemisphere when the sun is at south declination giving us short days; and the moon fulls south of the equator during their winter, giving the people in the southern hemisphere long bright winter nights while they are having short sun days. This in itself shows the benevolent goodness of our God in the balancing of our solar system for the best interests of all His earthly creatures. If Jehovah has done that with our moon for the blessing of the peoples of earth, what may we expect God has done for our solar system as a whole, and for the multiplied millions of other solar systems throughout an unlimited space!