Circumcision....How is it justified?
Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. Castellsague X , Bosch FX , Munoz N , Meijer CJ , Shah KV , de Sanjose S , Eluf-Neto J , Ngelangel CA , Chichareon S , Smith JS , Herrero R , Moreno V , Franceschi S ; International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group .
N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 11;346(15):1105-12.
Servei d'Epidemiologia i Registre del Cancer, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. [email protected]
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether male circumcision reduces the risks of penile human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the man and of cervical cancer in his female partner. METHODS: We pooled data on 1913 couples enrolled in one of seven case-control studies of cervical carcinoma in situ and cervical cancer in five countries. Circumcision status was self-reported, and the accuracy of the data was confirmed by physical examination at three study sites. The presence or absence of penile HPV DNA was assessed by a polymerase-chain-reaction assay in 1520 men and yielded a valid result in the case of 1139 men (74.9 percent). RESULTS: Penile HPV was detected in 166 of the 847 uncircumcised men (19.6 percent) and in 16 of the 292 circumcised men (5.5 percent). After adjustment for age at first intercourse, lifetime number of sexual partners, and other potential confounders, circumcised men were less likely than uncircumcised men to have HPV infection (odds ratio, 0.37; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.85). Monogamous women whose male partners had six or more sexual partners and were circumcised had a lower risk of cervical cancer than women whose partners were uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio, 0.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.79). Results were similar in the subgroup of men in whom circumcision was confirmed by medical examination. CONCLUSIONS: Male circumcision is associated with a reduced risk of penile HPV infection and, in the case of men with a history of multiple sexual partners, a reduced risk of cervical cancer in their current female partners
Penile carcinoma: a challenge for the developing world. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Apr;5(4):240-7 Misra S , Chaturvedi A , Misra NC .
Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical College, Lucknow, India.
Although rare in developed countries, carcinoma of the penis is an important problem in the developing world. Circumcision done in childhood offers the greatest protection against this disease. Poor penile hygiene and phimosis are strong risk factors for development of penile carcinoma. Early disease can be treated by conventional resection of the penis, or in selected patients by organ preserving techniques including Mohs micrographic surgery, and laser and radiation therapy. For more advanced primary disease, partial or total penectomy is needed. Elective or therapeutic lymph-node dissection is recommended for inguinal metastatic disease, and depending on the disease status, unilateral or bilateral inguinal or ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy might be needed. The role of chemotherapy, as adjuvant or primary treatment in metastatic disease, needs to be defined in prospective clinical trials, which can be done in developing countries.
Journal of Urology, 173: 978–981, 2005
The authors of this article noted the highly significant increase in the circumcision rate in the United States—13% overall, or a mean increase of 6.8% annually, during the years 1988 through 2000. However, the circumcision rate cited at the end of the study (61.1%) greatly underestimates the prevalence of circumcision in the United States. According to published evidence, about 80% of United States males are circumcised. Published objective observations of postneonatal males in various United States communities shows that the rate of male circumcision is 85% in Houston, Texas, 86% in Atlanta, Georgia, 83% in Southern California, 80% in Denver, Colorado, 92% in Wisconsin, 81% in Anchorage, Alaska and 76% in San Francisco, California (for non-Hispanic whites). 1–7
The statistical data reported by Nelson et al are misleading because they refer only to coded diagnoses obtained from birth hospitals. However, this point is not emphasized or quantitated. Moreover, faulty coding on the hospital discharge sheet is a major problem. In the Georgia study the coded discharge record indicated that 70% of male neonates were circumcised but full review of the medical charts showed that the true rate was 86%. 2 In 16% of cases, although the neonate was circumcised, the circumcision was not recorded on the discharge record used for statistical analysis. Similarly, only 65% of newborn males in Alaska are circumcised at the birth hospital but the rate is 81% when post-discharge circumcision is included. 6
Postneonatal circumcisions done for religious purposes (eg in Jewish and Muslim males), for medical reasons (eg as treatment for phimosis or balanoposthitis) or for other personal reasons were not included in the statistical data in this study. These factors account for the nearly 20% difference between the coded 61.1% rate from birth hospitals and the 80% circumcision rate documented for older males. This discrepancy has recently been emphasized, 8 yet the low rate for newborns is almost always used in referring to the percentage of United States males who are circumcised.
Male circumcision is the norm in America. The authors are correct to indicate that uncircumcised males in this country are more likely to be poor, without health insurance or members of certain ethnic groups, particularly Hispanics
If YHWH (or evolution) decided that mens penises needed a turtle neck sweater who's to say Him/it nay?
Circumcision was started by the old test. writers of 'law'. I think of them as the original Islamic "IMMAMS" of today who have the power to make their followers blow themselves up and riot over cartoons, etc. What fun is it to have a hammer if you don't crack somebody over the head with it occasionally so they don't forget who's the bosshog?
By the way, I am a gentile but my penis is kosher.
What did the rabbi say after the circumcision?
"it won't be long now..........."