Organization (Part 1 & 2)--1938 Watchtower

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    Here's a "normalized" copy of the pivotal 1938 Watchtower articles that centralized authority in Brooklyn and got rid of 'elective elders.' These are based on .pdf copies of the originals, but aren't exact renditions (for example, some abbreviations and punctuations have been modified, paragraph numbers omitted).

    June 1, 1938

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    PART 1

    “Instead of bronze I will bring in gold; and instead of iron I will bring in silver; and instead of wood, bronze; and instead of stones, iron; and I will appoint the oversight of thee to prosperity, and the setting of thy tasks to righteousness.” (Isaiah 60:17 Rotherham)

    JEHOVAH ’S ORGANIZATION is in no wise democratic. Jehovah is supreme, and his government or organization is strictly theocratic. This conclusion is not open to successful contradiction. Let this great and indisputable truth stand as a guidepost in the consideration of the foregoing text and what follows herein.

    Jehovah God is the supreme power, and Jehovah together with Christ Jesus constitutes the “Higher Powers,” to which all persons must be subject. (Romans 13:1) Jesus is designated in the prophecy as “The Mighty God” (Isaiah 9:6), meaning the mighty executive officer of Jehovah, the Almighty God. He is the representative and spokesman of the Almighty Jehovah. (Genesis 17:1) Jesus Christ is “the Head of the church,” which is his body. (Colossians 1:18) Jehovah is the “head of Christ” (1 Corinthians 11:3), and therefore Zion, God’s capital organization, is a theocratic government, a pure theocracy, and not “a peoples’ mandate” or a government “of the people, by the people.” The organization of Jehovah is a kingdom. It is not a limited or constitutional monarchy with restrictions upon it by a creature or creatures. Jehovah has made Christ Jesus Lord and King, and Christ Jesus answers to no members of his body for his official acts. All official acts and service, as foreshadowed in the various offices in the nation of Israel, Jehovah’s typical people, are now fulfilled in Christ Jesus the King. In the official service the members of the body of Christ share in a limited measure only as underpriests, Levites, and servants called to the kingdom as servers of God’s “judgments written.” For this reason there are no individuals in the organization under Christ Jesus’ who hold a superior degree or rank of superiority. ‘All are one in Christ Jesus’ and under Christ Jesus, the Head Jehovah God and Christ Jesus are the Teachers, and Christ Jesus at the temple is in immediate command of the organization invisible and visible. Separate and individual rights do not exist, but every member of the organization must of necessity be in complete subjection to the Head. It is necessary to get these principles fixed in mind and then keep in mind that everything and everyone in the organization must be in harmony therewith and work harmoniously.

    The primary purpose of this publication is to aid the people of God now on the earth to more keenly appreciate their relationship to God and Christ and, so understanding, to then move forward in complete, harmonious action. The temple company are now at unity, having come “unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ...the head,...from whom the whole body fitly joined together, and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.” (Ephesians 4:13-16) The words of Isaiah 60:17 according to the AV read: “For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron: I will also make thy officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness.” Those words are prophetic and have a complete fulfillment after the coming of Christ Jesus to the temple and the construction or building up of Zion, and show a clear contrast in the conditions existing in the church prior to that time and after the coming of the Lord to the temple. That prophecy of Isaiah shows how the work of the anointed remnant in Christ would be far richer, grander and more glorious than what preceded the building up of Zion, and this contrast is shown as gold is contrasted with bronze, or copper, and is richer than bronze, or copper; silver richer and more desirable than iron, and copper than wood, and iron than stone. Otherwise stated, these material things are used in contrast and to illustrate the present better and happier condition now existing in God’s organization.

    That prophecy of Isaiah had its first miniature fulfillment when the Jewish remnant were delivered from Babylon by the Gentile kings, Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Persian, and when that typical people were permitted to return to Jerusalem (Zion) there

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    to build the temple of God and to reconstruct the walls. (Ezra 6:1-15) It shows that the later Persian king, the successor of Cyrus, compelled heathen opposers to contribute toward the building of the temple and walls of Jerusalem. Thus, according to the prophecy of Isaiah 60:16, concerning them it is written: “Thou shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breast of kings [Darius, picturing Jehovah God, and Cyrus the Persian, picturing Christ Jesus]; and thou shalt know that I the Lord am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.” (Isaiah 60:16)

    Furthermore, the prophecy of Isaiah 60:17 had a temporary or miniature fulfillment with the establishment of the church, and which lasted during the days of the apostles; and thereafter captivity and affliction again came upon God’s people, reaching a climax in the persecution of 1917 and 1918. But the complete fulfillment is after the affliction upon the faithful followers of Christ Jesus and after the coming of Christ Jesus to the temple, there to try, test and make manifest the approved sons of antitypical Levi.

    For the guidance of its readers in the consideration of this matter The Watch tower ventures here the assertion that what follows herein, and which is fully supported by the Scriptures, establishes the following, to wit: That the teaching in the congregations during the “Elijah period” respecting the liberty of the classes or companies or congregations in voting into office their elders and deacons was an error; that the text at Acts 14:23 was misunderstood, and hence misinterpreted, and that the stretching forth of the hand by the members of the congregation was not the proper means of expressing the choice of servants; that the commission to “ordain” or “appoint officers in the church” was never delegated to the congregation or company; and that the entire absence in the epistles of Paul to the church respecting suck arrangement is very persuasive proof in support of this conclusion; that Paul, acting on instructions from the Lord, delegated certain authority and power to Timothy and Titus to perform certain duties in the church concerning the selection of servants or officers, but that said authority was not conferred upon the congregation as a whole or as a supposed “democratic” body. Furthermore, that in the interval from the days of the apostles to the coming of the Lord Jesus to the temple of Jehovah the Lord provided by and through the office of the holy spirit for the needs of each and every congregation; that with the coming of Christ to the temple the Lord Jesus Christ directs all things concerning his church, because he is in full command and fulfills completely the places or offices occupied by the apostle Paul and others; and that the instructions given by Paul to Timothy and Titus are also applicable to the “last days,” where we now are; and that the “faithful and wise servant” occupies a place similar to that fulfilled by Timothy and Titus, and that the servant now Acts under the direction and command and supervision of the Lord Jesus Christ, and hence the entire organization must be at complete unity and move forward in perfect accord and harmonious action.

    This is the day of Jehovah and the time for the vindication of his name. He has given his elect servant for a witness to the people, and the head of that servant, Christ Jesus, is the Leader and Commander. (Isaiah 55:4) Christ Jesus at the temple is in charge of Zion, and every member thereof must be in complete harmony with him and be joyfully obedient to his commands, and hence no member thereof has any right or privilege to take a separate course according to his own ideas. Christ Jesus is the chief representative and vindicator of Jehovah, and over and above all of the organization is Jehovah the Most High. Every one of the organization looks not to a selfish interest, but to the general interest or welfare of the organization. To the remnant of that organization now on the earth is committed much, and much more is demanded of them. In order for these to move forward in the war the Lord provides information for their aid and comfort and specifically directs them in the right way to go. Among the people of Jehovah under Christ there can be no division, but all must stand shoulder to shoulder as one compact body, joyfully rendering their offerings in righteousness unto the Lord. In some of the companies there appear still to be controversies, but when the faithful get a proper understanding of God’s organization and their individual relation thereto there can be no controversies amongst the people of God in which the real remnant participates. It is the time for absolute peace within the organization, and a time for war against the enemy.

    The Commander, Christ Jesus, in the day of his flesh gave no direction whatsoever concerning any arrangement to be made for the regulation of the companies or congregations of his followers, or selection of servants amongst them. He definitely stated his relationship to the church. He is the Foundation Stone and the Builder, and therefore he said to his apostles: “Upon this rock [Christ himself] I will build my church.” (Matthew 6:18) He delegated certain authority to his apostles, and to them he said: “As my Father hath sent me, even so send I you...Receive ye the holy [spirit].” (John 20:21, 22) To the communities or companies of his brethren he gave instruction concerning offenses against the Lord’s organization and as to the manner in which they should deal with such, but no instruction concerning the selection of servants was given by him. (Matthew 18:15-18) When Saul, who was afterwards called Paul, received enlightenment from the Lord and forsook religion, he was appointed by the Lord Jesus as his special

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    representative, and he received a special commission from Christ Jesus. “But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way; for he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel.” (Acts 9:15)

    This message and commission was committed to Paul: “And he said, The God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest know his will, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear the voice of his mouth. For thou shalt be his witness unto all men, of what thou hast seen and heard.” (Acts 22:14, 15) “And the night following, the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer, Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear witness also at Rome.” (Acts 23:11)

    Paul testified to his own commission as follows: “For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you.” (1 Corinthians 11:23) Concerning the message which Paul proclaimed he said: “For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the Revelation of Jesus Christ.” (Galatians 1:12) Thus the Scriptures show that the apostle Paul was specifically commissioned and instructed by the Lord in what he was to do. The Lord Jesus gave to his apostles the specific promise, to wit: “And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; even the spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. But the Comforter, which is the holy [spirit], whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.” (John 14:16, 17, 26) It is therefore made certain that when Paul proceeded to set the affairs of the church in order he was guided by the holy spirit, through the Word of God, and also received direct and specific instructions from the Lord Jesus Christ. What Paul did, therefore, must be taken as the expressed will of God concerning his church, builded upon Christ Jesus, the foundation and head.

    There was a miniature establishment of Zion made manifest by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. (Romans 1:4) This was so understood by the apostles, as shown by the records at Acts 4:23-27. (Psalm 2:1-6) Paul, as the special servant of the Lord, would have in mind the scriptures relating to the setting up of Zion, and which scriptures include the prophecy of Isaiah 60:17. What Paul was told by the Lord concerning the complete fulfilment of the prophecy relating to Zion, as set forth in that text, is not revealed, but we do know that Paul received certain information which he could not make known but which served to guide him in what he did. (2 Corinthians 12:4) What Paul did under the direction of the Lord Jesus Christ in setting in order the affairs of the church must of necessity be in harmony with the prophecy concerning Zion, because the church and Zion are inseparable. It may properly be said that the name “church” is applicable more particularly to the faithful followers of Christ Jesus until the coming of Christ Jesus to the temple, at which latter time Zion is builded up and the organization is spoken of as “Zion.” When builded up, of necessity that completed body must be in absolute unity and in complete harmony in action to go forward and perform the will of God.

    This important fact cannot be ignored, to wit: That nowhere in the epistles to the congregations or church companies, as such, did Paul give any instruction to them as to the manner of appointing officers or servants, which instruction they could carry out as a democratically ruled body. The question, of necessity, is asked: Why was no such instruction given? And the answer must surely be that the appointment of officers or servants of the church or congregation is not vested in the members of each separate company as though it were a democratically ruled organization. If it were the will of the Lord that each company or congregation should be self-contained in this matter, Paul surely would have made the same to clearly appear in the instructions given. What instruction is given in the Scriptures concerning the selection of servants, elders and deacons, Paul gave the same to Timothy and Titus, those two men being the ones specially appointed by Paul to set in order the companies or congregations and to keep them in order. It appears that to those two men the apostles and the Lord delegated authority concerning the church organization and government.

    A long period of time elapsed between the death of the apostles and the second coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul gave no instruction concerning the selection of servants of the church that must be followed during that period of time, but, as shown by the Scriptures, the whole matter was left to the Lord, who through the office of the holy spirit would look to all things that were necessary. No doubt Paul had a vision of the disintegration of the congregations, which began shortly after his death and with the coming forward of religionists, and which continued uninterrupted until the coming of the Lord Jesus to the temple. The apostle Paul did emphatically say, to wit: “And he [the Lord Jesus Christ, and not a company or congregation] gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ; till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ.” (Ephesians 4:11-13) It would therefore clearly follow that a company or congregation that appoints evangelists, pastors and teachers is acting contrary to the provision made by the Lord.

    When it is clearly seen and appreciated that at no time in the history of the church of God does the

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    Lord treat the church as a democracy; that the idea of a democracy is entirely absent in the writings of the apostles concerning the church; that there is no intimation that there is a confederacy or unity existing in the congregations, such as exists amongst the states of America, it must be concluded that the Hierarchy form of government, so seductive to many minds, is clearly a product of the Devil; also that the democratic form of government is contrary to the Word of God. Such was the case with the priest-ridden Jerusalem, as shown by the prophecy of Jeremiah, when the self-constituted elect class, the clergy, ruled contrary to the will of God. Likewise “the Roman Catholic Hierarchy of authority,” and similar ‘authoritative’ governments and religious organizations, are clearly of the Devil, instituted and practiced for the purpose of turning men away from God and his King, and bringing them under the control of the representatives of the Devil. Therefore the faithful apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ could not have started an organization which for its method of operation is a government by democratic methods or a rule by “orders” of priests or Hierarchy. The rule of Jehovah God, both that with his typical people Israel and that of his people taken out for his name, is purely a theocratic rule. God’s kingdom or organization is a pure theocracy, not subject to the whims or rules of any creature.

    Smarting under the tyrannical rule by the clergy and Hierarchy, sincere men turned to the democratic government of religious organizations with a hope of a better condition, and that withod has for years been followed in religious organizations. But is such in harmony with the Scriptures? The fact that such a method was adopted in the congregations of those who claimed to serve the Lord is no proof that it is right. During the Elijah period of the church sincere followers of Christ Jesus left the Babylonish organization and they came out with spots on their garments, which they had received by reason of associating with that devilish organization. Within the period known as “the Elijah time of the church” elders and deacons in the congregations were selected by a vote of the members expressed by the stretching forth of the hand. Whether this was proper or not, at least the Lord permitted it or did not interfere. The intention or purpose of the Christians who adopted and followed this method was, no doubt, good, but that would not make it Scriptural. The authority for such action or voting, it was claimed, was found in Acts 14:23. Barnabas was associated with Paul in the work of preaching the gospel and setting matters aright in the congregations. Having this in mind, which is shown in this same chapter, note the words of Acts: 14:23: “And when they [Paul together with Barnabas, and not the congregation] had ordained [(Greek) cheirotoneo ] them [that is, in the respective congregations] elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they [Paul and Barnabas, the apostles, and not the company] commended them [the ones chosen] to the Lord, on whom they believed.”

    In the same manner Paul commended the elders of Ephesus to God. (Acts 20:32) The Greek word cheirotoneo is, in the foregoing text at Acts 14:23, rendered “ordained”; but “ordain” or “ordained” is a wrong word, as will be observed by the examination of subsequent scriptures herein cited. The Greek word cheirotonein means “to extend or stretch forth the hand.” But the question is: Was the stretching forth of the hand the act performed by the apostles or by the congregation? Was the stretching forth of the hand a sign or means of voting? Manifestly it was the apostles who stretched forth the hand, not as a means or sign of voting, but as an act of confirming those men chosen for the office of service. The Greek word cheirotoneo , rendered “ordained” at Acts 14:23, in fact means chosen. This is shown by the text at 2 Corinthians 8:18, 19, wherein that same Greek word is rendered “chosen.” This latter text, however, does not show that the men were chosen by the company or congregation, but by those upon whom the apostles had previously conferred authority by stretching forth of their hands as at Acts 14:23.

    The selection of officers or servants by the democratic method of voting by the congregation ignores the command concerning “the Higher Powers.” (Romans 13:1) Only the Almighty God and Christ Jesus constitute the higher powers, and the apostle Paul was a special representative of such higher powers, and Paul, acting by virtue of the authority conferred upon him, designated others to represent the higher powers. The stretching forth of the hand was an act of confirmation by the apostles. The following texts support that conclusion: in the sixth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles it is seen that the apostles instructed the brethren to ‘look out’ or nominate certain men to perform certain duties of service, and to bring these before or to the attention of the apostles; and concerning these men it is written: “Whom they set before the apostles, and when they [the apostles] had prayed, they [the apostles] laid their hands on them.” Thus the congregation or company recognized the Higher Powers acting through the apostles, and the apostles, after praying to the Higher Powers, laid their hands on these men, thus confirming their selection. Clearly therefore it was the apostles who stretched forth or put forth their hands. The following texts show that it was the apostles who stretched forth the hand: “Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the holy [spirit].” (Acts 8:17, 18) “When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the holy [spirit] came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.” (Acts 19:5, 6) “Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy,

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    with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.” (1 Timothy 4:14)

    In giving instruction to Timothy as to what course he should take, the apostle Paul said: “Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men’s sins; keep thyself pure.” (1 Timothy 5:22) Mark that this instruction was not given to the congregation, but to Timothy alone, whom Paul had appointed to represent him and perform certain duties in the church. The apostle specifically instructed Timothy as to the required qualifications of the servants to be selected, and warned Timothy that he must act with caution after due and prayerful investigation and consideration. Again, Paul said to Timothy: “Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands” (2 Timothy 1:6); thus showing that it was the apostle who confirmed Timothy as his representative. At 1 Timothy 4:14 it is written: “With the laying on of the hands of the presbytery”; which does not mean the congregation, but those who had been selected to represent the Higher Powers, that is to say, Paul and the other mature ones which had been selected by him to act in the government of the congregation.

    The “laying on of hands” was not an annual ceremony or affair, such as the yearly selection of servants, according to the practice in vogue during the Elijah period; and this is clearly shown by the text: “Therefore, leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.” (Hebrews 6:1, 2) When a person was once selected to perform certain duties, there was no need to renew that selection so long as the person appointed acted in faith and faithfully.

    With God’s typical people Israel the laying on of hands was not a practice of the congregation, but the same was restricted to the duly constituted representatives of the people. Such laying on of hands did not indicate voting by some voting in the affirmative and some in the negative. This is shown by the direction which the Lord gave to the Israelites. “When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known, then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernacle of the congregation. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the Lord; and the bullock shall be killed before the Lord.” (Leviticus 4:14, 15) Jehovah selected the Levites for his service without taking a vote of the people. (Numbers 3:40, 45) The Levites, the servants selected by Jehovah, laid their hands on the bullock, as representing them in the sacrifice to God. (Numbers 8:9-12)

    When the time came to select a successor to Moses Jehovah did the choosing. Moses did not pick a successor, neither was Joshua offered or put forward for the Job and voted on by others. ”And the Lord said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him; and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight. And thou shalt put some of thine honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him, after the judgment of Urim before the Lord; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation. And Moses did as the Lord commanded him: and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation. And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses.” (Numbers 27:18-23)

    In the selection of one to take the place of Judas Iscariot such was not done by a vote of the congregation or disciples. The apostles put forward two men, and the judgment was put up to the Lord by the casting of lots. On that occasion Peter said to the others: There “must one be ordained,” or,” of these must one become a witness with us [and] of his [Jesus’] resurrection.” (Acts 1:22 ARV) On that occasion Peter quoted from Psalms concerning Judas: “Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein, and his bishopric let another take.” (Vs. 20) Then Justus and Matthias were put forward: “And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, that he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.” (Acts 1:24-26)

    All the foregoing Scriptural proof is to the effect that the Jews’ stretching forth the hand, or the laying on of hands (as stated in 2 Corinthians 8:18, 19), was not done by the congregation, but by the representatives which bad been chosen by the apostle Paul. (See also Acts 15:37-41) It was the apostles who commended the elders to the Lord, just as Paul did concerning the elders at Ephesus. (Acts 20:17-32) It appears that the congregation might agree upon or nominate men for service and place these before the apostles, but the approval or final selection rested upon Paul (1 Corinthians 16:3) or upon one to whom the apostle had delegated authority to act as the representative of the Lord. (2 Corinthians 8:19, 22)

    In his epistles the apostle Paul uses the Greek word episkopos to designate the overseers of the congregations. ”And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church...Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over

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    the which the holy [spirit] hath made you overseers [(Greek) episkopous ].” (Acts 20:17, 28) That Greek word is rendered by Strong “officer, bishop, overseer.” Not the congregation, but the holy spirit, acting as the representative of the Lord absent, made such men “overseers.” All the apostles were overseers or epis kopoi . The word so often used by religionists, “archbishop,” does not once occur in the apostle’s writings. Those faithful men were made overseers, not by any vote of any creatures, but by the holy spirit, as shown by the testimony of the apostle Paul himself. In the various epistles by the several apostolic writers there appears no instruction whatsoever to the congregation as to the holding of regular election of officers of the congregation or company. Nothing is said about separate congregations’ voting their respective officers into positions of service. Paul's letter to the Philippians is addressed “to all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons” (Philippians 1:1); no instructions are given as to the election by voting or stretching forth of the hand.

    As the apostle Paul was clothed by the Lord Jesus Christ with power and authority to appoint officers in the church, it clearly appears that the apostle had authority to delegate such power to act to others and that he did select and delegate such authority to Timothy and Titus for that purpose. (1 Timothy 1:3; 5:21, 22; Titus 1:5) Concerning the organization of the congregation or company and the appointment of others and servants Paul did give instruction to Timothy and Titus. To Titus he said: “For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that were wanting, and appoint elders in every city, as I gave thee charge.” (Titus 1:5 ARV) If Timothy and Titus were mere voters in the congregation, whose votes did not count for more than that of others in the same congregation, surely the apostle would not have specifically instructed them as to how the organization should be arranged. These scriptures therefore show that Paul was commissioned to bestow upon Timothy and Titus the power and authority to perfect the organization of the companies or congregations.

    Religionists have misapplied these Scriptural texts by reserving to themselves the power of appointment, so that they, the clergy, might hold control of the members in their own hands, and that for selfish purposes. Thus they have made themselves bosses, exalted and glorified themselves, and made themselves to appear far above the “common herd” of the congrega tion, which they have called and still call “the laity” as a class distinguished from the clergy. To avoid such improper distinction between clergy bosses and the common people the practice was adopted and followed, during the Elijah period, of each congregation, by each member, voting, thus appointing or electing elders and deacons, and as many as were available were so selected, so that all might have something to do Now the time has come for a different procedure. And why? The strongest reason is, because the Lord Jesus Christ is at the temple and all in Christ have come to a maturity, that is to say, to the status of elders or mature ones, and all are on an exact level, and the Lord Jesus Christ is in complete control.

    The “higher powers” are Jehovah and Christ Jesus, and the authority to ‘lay on hands’ is restricted or limited to a number to be overseers, such as the apostles, Timothy, and Titus. This is in clear recognition of the Higher Powers, and acting under authority and direction of the Higher Powers. Such restriction of laying on of hands is a safeguarding measure, in this, that the younger, ignorant learners and ones less mature are therefore less qualified and less discreet, and hence not so fitted to fill such places as the more mature ones. Therefore Timothy was instructed to lay hands on no man without first giving the matter careful and prayerful consideration, acting cautiously under the direction of the Lord. The laying on of hands did not make the person thus selected a superior order of Christian. It merely meant that such had a definite responsibility placed upon him within certain limits, and that the congregation acquiesced in such arrangement and acted accordingly in full harmony. It still remains true, as written, “All ye are brethren,” and, “Ye are all one in Christ Jesus” (Matthew 23:8; Galatians 3:28); and for this reason are all on a common level so far as rank or distinction is concerned. Nor does it appear that the elders or overseers and the deacons were appointed for a limited term of a year or less, but that they were appointed for life or as long as they remained faithful in the performance of duty. Such rule would not apply, however, to such as a company servant, who may be appointed annually in the readjustment of the service organization and when the determining factor in the selection of such one is measured by faithfulness, zeal and efficiency. Activity in service to the general advancement of the kingdom interest is the important matter.

    In the apostolic days the congregations in different parts of the land were not independent units without central supervision. They were regulated from the central body, which Christ Jesus established in the faithful apostles; which is shown by the record at Acts 15:2-30. Nor was the appointment of officers the responsibility of each separate congregation without the confirmation and regulation by the central authority, that is to say, the apostles or their immediate representatives. By virtue of the authority conferred upon him by the holy spirit Paul decided (“ordained”) vital matters for the congregation, but only as the Lord had provided: “If not, as the Lord has apportioned to each one, even as God has called

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    each one, so let him walk. And thus in all the congregations I appoint.” (1 Corinthians 7: 17 Diaglott)

    Thus the “Higher Powers” were duly acknowledged and, as commanded, “every soul” was “subject to the higher powers.” (Romans 13:1) The apostles are no longer on the earth in the flesh, but the Higher Powers are present in the temple, Jehovah God, the Supreme Power, being there represented by Christ Jesus the Higher Power. Therefore no individual on earth acts as the direct personal representative of the Higher Powers, as did the apostles in their day.

    Titled offices or officers, supposed to be superior to the common ones, have always been in vogue in the religious organizations called “Christendom,” and that was even so among those engaged in the Elijah work, from 1878 to 1918. There were those who assumed a titled position or office and assumed to act as bosses over others and thus showed insubordination to the body of Christ as a whole. Now the Lord having come to the temple and gathered unto himself the faithful, all such must be on a common level, at unity in Christ. It strongly appears that the epistles to Timothy and Titus were written for the specific direction of Jehovah’s witnesses in the “last days,” but that does not at all argue for the appointment of titled ones, such as elders ( episkopous ) and deacons ( diakonous ). T he Lord, through the apostle Paul, delegated to Timothy and Titus certain duties. Paul, in his day, made known the will and ordinances of the Lord, which he had received from the Lord, and hence Paul there stood in the place of or represented more particularly the Lord Jesus Christ, who now is at the temple as the only Son of Jehovah God. Jesus Christ at the temple is the great and special representative of Jehovah. When on the earth Jesus had appointive power, and now much more. He has the same because he is clothed with all power in heaven and in earth. (John 15:16; Matthew 28:18)

    It must be seen by all who love and serve Jehovah, and who therefore believe the revealed truths of his Word, that the Lord Jesus Christ as the Head of Jehovah’s organization Zion has a visible part of his organization on the earth, which represents the Lord and acts under the direct supervision of the Lord Jesus Christ. Otherwise the work of the Lord in the earth would be without order. His visible kingdom interests or “goods” must be committed to some representative, and the question now is, Who is that visible representative, standing in the place similar to that occupied and followed by Timothy and Titus, and which representative is clothed with certain authority to act? The answer must be found in the Scriptures, and not in the mere opinion of men. Jesus declared, as it is written, that upon his coming to the temple he would commit all his goods or kingdom interests on earth to that “faithful and wise servant,” which faithful and wise servant is made up and composed of all the anointed ones on earth brought into the temple into unity in Christ, and acting in complete unity under the direction of the Lord Jesus Christ. (Matthew 24:45-47) Paul, as the representative of Christ Jesus, delegated to Timothy and Titus authority to act in certain matters of appointing servants in the church. The Lord Jesus, now at the temple and in full charge of every part of his organization according to his own word, delegates to his earthly representative certain duties to be performed in his visible organization, and which duties, of necessity, must include the selection of servants. The anointed remnant on earth at the temple, for convenience, is designated as “The Society.” That does not mean The WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY as a corporation, because that corporation is organized to meet certain legal requirements. “The Society,” as that term is now used, does mean God’s people on the earth at full unity, duly organized and carrying on the work of bearing testimony to the name of Jehovah God in harmony with his will, which “testimony of Jesus Christ” is committed unto them, these all being the children of God by his organization Zion. (Revelation 12:17; Isaiah 54:13) The letters of the apostle Paul, addressed to Timothy and Titus, applying to the “last days,” now apply to the Society; and the things committed to Titus and Timothy to do, and the special charge to them, are performed by the Society, acting under the direct supervision of the Lord Jesus Christ at the temple.

    Timothy was charged concerning the teaching of what is the will of God. (1 Timothy 1:3, 4, 18; 2:12; 3:11; 2 Timothy 2:14) He was instructed with reference to recognizing the “Higher Powers,” and the prayerful and faithful support of them. (1 Timothy 2:1-3) The Higher Powers are now in active office, and it is their time of war. (2 Timothy 2:3) because of his appointive power Timothy was instructed as to the qualifications of servants in the church or companies. (1 Timothy 3:1-13)

    No provision was made for the office of “elder,” or “priest.” In fact an episkopos or overseer must first be an elder, as shown by Acts 20:17, 28; that is to say, he must be one of the mature ones in Christ. Such overseers were not just one in a province, set over all others in that territory, such as the Roman Catholic system follows. The overseer was one appointed to look after the interests of the company or congregation. Timothy was instructed as to the proper conduct of himself in God’s organization or house, (1 Timothy 3:14, 15) Likewise in all these matters “The Society” is instructed to deport itself in harmony with God’s will, as set, forth in the Scriptures.

    Timothy was commanded to exhort and to remind the brethren (by repeatedly calling attention to such things). He was youthful, but was told to permit no one to despise him by reason of his youth. (1 Timothy 4:12)

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    So likewise “The Society” is comparatively a youthful organization, having existed as such only since the coming of the Lord Jesus to the temple. Yet it is not to be despised for that reason, but to act in harmony with the will of God and the Lord Jesus.

    When the Lord Jesus came to the temple in 1918, he did not elect an individual as his representative and servant, but did select a company of faithful men and women as his servants and formed them into an organization representing his kingdom interests on earth and made that body his “faithful and wise servant” to which he committed all his kingdom interests on the earth, which interests he designates as “all his goods.” That “faithful and wise servant” he built up in Zion as a part of his capital organization. (Psalm 132:12, 13; 78:68-70) Therefore as the apostle Paul did not need letters of commendation” (2 Corinthians 3:1-3; 1:1), so likewise “The Society,” which operates legally under the name of The WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY, needs no letters of recommendation from any man or men, because it is a part of God’s organization. Its works, together with the results thereof, by the grace of the Lord, viewed in the light of prophecy, are in themselves “letters of commendation” from the Lord himself.

    Timothy had a “ prophecy.” (1 Timothy 4:14) Whether it was a gift of prophecy to him or previous favorable mention of him to Paul, at least “The Society” has had previous favorable mention in or been prophesied of in the Scriptures, and the Lord Jesus Christ, the Great Elder, has laid his hands upon “THE SOCIETY,” even as Paul laid his hands upon Timothy (2 Timothy 1:6), and so it sets forth the truth in the fulfillment of prophecies. Also “rebukes” are not now the prerogative of private individuals at the pleasure or choice of such, but such reproof is the prerogative of “The Society” against those who have been entrusted with duties and responsibilities and who have proved undependable and unfaithful. (1 Timothy 5:1, 2, 20) “The Society” acts by and through its duly constituted servants, recognizing the great fact that ‘God hath set the members in the body as it pleaseth him’ (1 Corinthians 12:18), which he does by and through his Chief Officer, Christ Jesus. It must be conceded by all who love the Lord that the Lord has perfected and directs his own organization.

    Christ Jesus is at the temple as and for Jehovah, and he is there accompanied by his holy angels. There he has gathered unto himself the faithful who have been resurrected and also the faithful remnant yet on the earth, and above all and over all is Jehovah God. Surely the Lord Jesus Christ has his own good and sufficient way of communicating with and instructing the temple company, which he does by and through his organization on earth in the manner that he has provided. Therefore “The Society” takes note of those mature ones in the organization (who are in fact elders, by the grace of God) “that rule [preside over] well” the things committed to them. (1 Timothy 5:17, 18) “The Society” therefore is the proper instrument used in the appointment of servants in the various companies, which duty does not devolve upon individuals or congregations acting independently and democratically. (1 Timothy 5:22) This is done after prayerfully and diligently seeking the will of the Lord, and by acknowledging him and receiving his direction as he has promised. (Proverbs 3:5, 6) “The Society” performs the duties laid upon it by Christ Jesus, the King and Ruler.

    Jesus Christ, Jehovah’s great Apostle or Sent One, and who is at the temple, has ‘laid hands’ upon “The Society” as his “faithful and wise servant” and visible representative. (2 Timothy 1:6) “The Society” has been and is a “partaker of the afflictions of the gospel” and is not ashamed of bonds and imprisonment for his sake, rejoicing to have a part in the reproaches that have fallen upon God and upon Christ Jesus. (2 Timothy 1:8; Amos 15:3) “The Society,” acting as the servant and representative of the Lord, commits the testimony work to the Lord’s faithful witnesses now on the earth. (2 Timothy 2:2) They too must study to properly perform and set forth the will of God for his people. (2 Timothy 2:15) The policy of “The Society” is true to the instructions given to Timothy, to “shun profane and vain babblings:…foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they do gender strifes.” (2 Timothy 2:16, 23) As with Timothy, “The Society’s” mission is to “preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and doctrine. But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry.” (2 Timothy 4:2-5)

    As Titus was instructed and commissioned to do, so likewise is “The Society” to appoint servants. “For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee.” (Titus 1:5) The ones to be appointed are first carefully considered, seeing that they are duly qualified, as provided by the Scriptures. (Titus 1:6-9) The exercise of its power of authority is not to be disputed, because done at the command of the Lord. (Titus 2:15)

    It must and does exhort those consecrated to the Lord to be subject to the “Higher Powers,” which are ordained of Jehovah God. (Romans 13:1-4) For that reason “The Society” would be unfaithful to the Lord and would act in violation of his commandment if it should advise and instruct God’s people to salute men or the flags of any country or nation or to do obeisance to any earthly thing, thereby implying that protection or salvation comes from some creature or thing, and not from the Lord. (Titus 3:1) As Titus was instructed: “Avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about

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    the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. A man that is an heretic, after the first and second admonition reject” (Titus 3:9, 10), so likewise “The Society” must do. The heretics the Lord deals with.

    In full accord with the foregoing, those who act as company servants in the various companies of publishers are the representatives of the Society by appointment. While the respective companies may recommend certain ones, it is the prerogative of the Society to pass over such recommendations and to appoint the ones that appear to be best suited for the place or places. In the days of the apostles overseers were appointed for life of faithful service. An ecclesia could not throw out of service one assigned thereto in order to satisfy the selfish whims of some, but the apostle or the ones to whom he delegated authority removed such appointed ones because of unfaithfulness or failure to perform assigned duties. (1 Corinthians 5:3-5; Titus 3:10) Whatever the reason for the Lord’s permitting the democratic form of rule in the congregations or companies to prevail during the Elijah period, and without regard to whether the same was right or wrong, the Scriptures and the attending facts show that, when the Lord arrives at the temple, a change is made, which change is brought about by the Lord informing his remnant of their true relationship to him. It is the time of understanding, and the remnant must now “with all thy getting get understanding.” The reason for such clearer light and understanding, and for such change for betterment, is further discussed in the next issue of The Watchtower. (To be continued)

  • proplog2
    every member thereof must be in complete harmony with him and be joyfully obedient to his commands, and hence no member thereof has any right or privilege to take a separate course according to his own ideas.

    Left,---- Left,------ Left, Right, Left

  • minimus

    This is one of the few times, the Society admitted to making a mistake.....When the Isaiah books were released at the DC, they went into the organizational refinements bit. That hit me like a ton of bricks. When I researched this passage I got to the 1938 WT. I think this is THE most RIDICULOUS understanding of scripture imaginable. Talk about s t r e t c h i n g things!!!!!!!

  • onacruse

    OK, here's part 2...a thick read, but it shows how convoluted their chronological calculations were, and how adamantly they insisted that this was all part of God's prophetic plan.

    June 15, 1938

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    PART 2

    “Instead of bronze I will bring in gold; and instead of iron I will bring in silver; and instead of wood, bronze; and instead of stones, iron; and I will appoint the oversight of thee to prosperity, and the setting of thy tasks to righteousness.” (Isaiah 60:17 Rotherham)

    JEHOVAH knew the end from the beginning, and, foreknowing the establishment of his church upon Christ, the Chief corner Stone, he began the building thereof with the faithful apostles. “And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; in whom all the building, fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord; in whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the spirit.” (Ephesians 2:20-22)

    He foreknew and foretold through his servant “a falling away” before the coming of Christ Jesus to the temple. (2 Thessalonians 2:1-3) He caused his prophecy to be written long ago in full accord with such conditions. All the Bible testimony is to the effect that with the coming of Christ to the temple there is a change for the betterment of the consecrated, in this, that the consecrated are shown what is the right and proper course for them to take. The temple judgment puts the consecrated to the test, and the approved ones are brought into the temple, enlightened, and plainly directed in the way that they must go It is then that they begin to learn and appreciate the fact that God’s organization is a theocratic government. There is no reason to attach blame to the consecrated of the past because of the course taken by them during the Elijah period. The Lord permitted such for his own good reason. The question is, Who will gladly and willingly get in line with the Lord and walk in his way when the true situation is made known to such? God’s people came out of Babylon with spotted garments, which spots are not removed instantly, but gradually, as the Lord sheds his light upon his Word. It now definitely appears that the Lord God causes his people to have a part in the fulfillment of his prophecy, and then later and in his own due time and way reveals to them the evidence showing such fulfilment and the part they play therein. The increased light brings great joy to the anointed, because such is clear proof that they are in the Lord’s hand, being guided by him.

    The prophecy at Isaiah 60:17 describes conditions that were to exist and did exist for a long period of time and then a change to a better condition within the Lord’s visible organization, during which they would be brought to a better understanding and keener appreciation of their relationship to the Lord. The prophecy does not describe the relationship of the remnant to the outside world, which is Satan’s organization, but does describe the relationship the anointed bear to Jehovah and Christ Jesus and hence to one another. Mark well the words of the prophecy showing that Jehovah brings about the change, to wit: “I [Jehovah] will bring...I [Jehovah] will...make.” (AV) Clearly this shows that the members of the various companies have nothing to do with the change except to get in line when they see it. Jehovah declares that he will bring in a better condition and that he will make the officers, servants or overseers, to occupy a close relationship to him. For convenience of The Watch tower readers various translations of this prophecy are here set out. “For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron. I will also make thine officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness.” (Isaiah 60:17, AV) “ For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron. I will also make thy officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness.” (A RV) “Instead of brass I will bring gold; and instead of iron I will bring silver; and instead of wood brass; and instead of stones iron; and I will make thine inspectors peace, and thy magistrates, righteousness.” (Barnes, new Translation) “Instead of the copper will I bring gold, and instead of the iron will I bring silver, and instead of wood copper, and instead of the stones iron; and I will set peace as thy authorities, and righteousness as thy taskmasters.” (Leeser) “And instead of brass I will bring thee gold; and instead of iron I will bring thee silver; and instead of wood I will bring thee brass; and instead of stones, iron; and I will give thy rulers in

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    peace, and thy overseers [episkopous] in righteousness.” (Septuagint) “For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver; and for wood brass, and for stones iron: and I will make thy visitation peace, and thy overseers justice.” (Douay) “Instead of bronze I will bring in gold; and instead of iron I will bring in silver, and instead of wood, bronze; and instead of stones, iron, and I will appoint the oversight of thee to prosperity, and the setting of thy tasks to righteousness.” (Rotherham)

    In the foregoing prophecy at Isaiah 60:17 the word “officers” (the AV) is translated from the Hebrew word phakad, meaning “to superintend, oversee.” The same Hebrew word phakad is translated in other texts of the Greek Septuagint Version by the Greek word “episkopos”: Numbers 4:16; 31:14; Judges 9:28; 2 Kings 11:15, 18; 2 Chronicles 34: 12, 17. The word in the AV rendered “exactors” is translated from the Hebrew word “nahgas,” meaning “to urge, impel, drive”; and hence the noun “taskmaster,” the same as rendered in some other English translations. In the Greek Septuagint Version the same word is rendered episkopos, or overseer or superintendent. The Scriptures disclose that all the apostles were overseers. The meaning of the word episkopos is indicated by the following texts: “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the dock, over the which the holy [spirit] hath made you overseers [(Greek) episkopous], to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.” (Acts 20:28) “For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop [(Greek) episkopos; Overseer (ARV), margin)] of your souls.” (1 Peter 2:25) (See also 1 Peter 5:12) The prophecy of Isaiah and other scriptures, therefore, show that in God’s due time he would bring about a condition with reference to the service and servants in the church, showing the faithful more clearly their own relationship to the Lord and their proper duties and obligations.

    For a long while there was more or less strife, contention and lack of peace and harmony among the professed people of God; in some companies, much more, and in some, less. When Christ Jesus came to the temple and the faithful were gathered to him, all then are at unity in Christ (Ephesians 4:13, 15) and therefore a better condition must be brought in. Where there is unity, there of necessity must be peace. So in the prophecy Jehovah says: “I will...make thy officers [overseers] peace.” That must mean that the time comes when there is peace in the organization of the Lord all over the earth. God commands that it shall be so, and therefore it is his will that peace must exist. That means that unity and harmony exist amongst those of the temple company. There is unity and harmony in action in the organization, in the field service, in the methods of study, in the assemblies together, and in all activity, and there must no longer be strife, clashes and boycotts, or any such thing, which existed in times past when the “elective elders and deacons” held titled offices and ruled arrogantly. Those who are in the temple will appreciate this situation and, knowing the responsibility upon them, will diligently put forth their best endeavors to walk humbly with God.

    The prophecy clearly indicates a change, therefore, for the better, in this: as gold is better than bronze, silver better than iron, bronze better than wood, iron better than stone, even so by comparison and contrast a better condition is brought about because, the Lord Jehovah, by this prophecy, says, “I will appoint the oversight of thee to Prosperity,” “setting of thy tasks to righteousness,” “ thine exactors [(ARV), margin) Thy taskmasters] righteousness.” In harmony with this the Lord puts in the mouth of the consecrated the prayer applying particularly to the “day of Jehovah,” when the Lord comes to the temple, and the temple company pray: “O Lord, I beseech thee, send now prosperity.” (Psalm 118:24, 25) Prosperity must be accompanied by peace and harmony. The prophecy, therefore, of necessity must mean that those assigned to service in the companies or organizations are committed to peace and that they pray for it and work for it and maintain it. (Psalm 122) It is made certain that those in line for the kingdom who do not strive to maintain peace and to work in harmony to the advancement of the kingdom interest, the angels of the Lord will gather out and cast into darkness. (Matthew 13:41) It is no time for any controversies or strife in God’s organization, but all must be at complete unity.

    Furthermore says the Lord in the prophecy: “I will...make...thine exactors righteousness.” (ARV) “Thine exactors” (see different translations as above) means (Greek) episkopous, overseers, taskmasters, drivers or progressive ones, and who push the war against the enemy, and that all shall be servants of righteousness. Surely this must mean that righteousness shall be the urging, driving, impelling force in the Lord’s organization now on the earth, and this particularly so since the cleansing of the sanctuary in 1932. “Righteousness” would therefore mean that there could be no more oppression such as practiced by the “elective elder” bosses, who feel and manifest their importance and browbeat others. There must be no more misguided efforts in wrong directions, such as character development, kowtowing to the would-be higher powers of the world, adulation of individuals or creatures, and therefore ‘no longer the rod of the wicked resting on [and ruling over] the lot of the righteous, lest the righteous put forth their hand unto iniquity.’ (Psalm 125:3)

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    Righteousness means doing gladly according to the will of God by measuring up to and carrying out the commission which God has given to his anointed people. That does not mean the driving of the unwilling, but that the love of righteousness is the driving or impelling force, that is to say, the moving cause. It is the love of God and the vindication of his name that impels such to proceed to push on with the work of fulfilling the commission God has given them. Therefore all must be fully united in action and harmoniously ‘serving him, day and night, in his temple,’ willingly and with unspeakable joy. The right motive, therefore, drives or moves God’s people into harmonious action. It is such works of righteousness and such workers that obtain the approval of the Lord. Examples of such, who receive the Lord’s approval are these: Zerubbabel, the governor; Joshua, the high priest; the prophets Zechariah and Haggai; Ezra, the scribe; Nehemiah, the governor; who were associated with the Jewish remnant returned from Babylon, first, to rebuild the temple, and then the walls of Jerusalem. (Ezra 5:1, 2; 7:1-10; Nehemiah 5:6-19) Also other approved examples are the apostles, who worked for peace and righteousness in the Lord’s organization. All that are now at the temple and who remain there must also be workers of righteousness.

    Appointments by The Watch Tower Society are not what religionists call “ordinations.” Men who translated the Bible, as well as others, have misapplied the word “ordained” and hence used the word contrary to the real Scriptural meaning. The manner of using the word “ordained” by religionists is in the nature of a declaration or claim that there exists in God’s organization an arrangement called “orders” and that the persons assigned to such “orders” are superior to and in a different class from others of the church; and such is the basis for the use of the office and title employed by clergymen and other “exalted ones” in religious organizations. The religionists call such “holy orders.” The conferment of such “orders” or offices is held to be a sacrament conferred upon the one receiving such by the action of a bishop. Such is entirely contrary to the Word of God, and it is the wily and seductive influence of the Devil that led men to make such an arrangement as “orders” or “ordinations” and to hold and teach that some men might ordain others by conferring upon them titles, honors and dignities above their fellow men.

    According to the Scriptures the word there translated “ordain” means “to appoint, to designate, constitute and set in order,” but never means rank or class distinction. Says the apostle: “Ye are all one in Christ Jesus.” (Galatians 3:28) God hath set the members in the body as it pleaseth him. (1 Corinthians 12:18) In the body of Christ there are no such “orders,” as that term is employed by religionists. Different ones in the company perform different functions in the body of Christ. There are many members, but one body. (1 Corinthians 12:20) As the hand does not perform the functions of the eye, so one member of the body does not perform all the functions of the body of Christ, but all are on the same level. There is no authority or need for “the Society” today to employ the ceremony of “laying on of hands” upon those appointed to places of service. The mere designation, appointment and endorsement by the Society, given through the mail, by telegraph or by telephone, is all-sufficient and meets the requirements. Nor is there any need for a representative of the Society to be present and go through any hand motions or other ceremonies at such appointment. Such personal presence could ad nothing to the appointing power and effect before the Lord. The apostles were clothed with certain specific power delegated to them by the “higher powers,” but on the earth today there are none who are clothed with such special delegated power as that conferred upon the apostles.

    In the early days of the church the elders in laying on of hands or hand-stretching were merely giving their expression of mature judgment of approval of the ones put forward to serve. Now, since the gathering into the temple and the anointing, all of the temple company have come to eldership or maturity in Christ. In the place and stead of the apostles or others clothed with such authority, who acted in the absence of Christ Jesus, there is now at the temple Christ Jesus himself, Jehovah’s great Apostle, who is in full control. (Hebrews 3:1) Christ Jesus is clothed with absolute authority, and, being in complete control of the organization of Zion, he directs the operation thereof. Therefore Christ Jesus, the Head of Zion, now at the temple, fills all the offices, to wit: great Elder and the Elder Brother in the church (Hebrews 2:11, 13; John 21:5); great Deacon (diakonos), minister (Matthew 20:25; Amos 13:4); the great Pastor or Shepherd (John 10:11; 1 Peter 5:1-4); the great Bishop or Episkopos (1 Peter 2:25); the great Evangelist or Proclaimer of good news (Matthew 4:23; Luke 4:13, 43); great Teacher (Isaiah 30:20; John 13:13, 14); great prophet (Matthew 21:11; John 4:19; Acts 3:22, 23; Revelation 19:10); the great Judge (John 5:22, 26-30; Acts 10:42; 17:31); and the great Counselor (Revelation 3:18; Isaiah 9:6). In sending Christ Jesus to the temple Jehovah has, by one act, fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 1:26, to wit: “And I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellors as at the beginning: afterward thou shalt be called, The city of righteousness, the faithful city.” Thus Jehovah sets up Zion, his faithful city or organization, with Christ Jesus being the absolute ruler as the Executive Officer of Jehovah God. Therefore ‘the government is upon the shoulder of Christ Jesus.’ (Isaiah 9:6) He is the Higher Power next to Jehovah, the Supreme Power. (Romans 13:1, 4) He is the Ruler in spiritual Israel. (Matthew 2:5, 6) That part of the Lord’s organization on earth, therefore, acts under

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    the direct supervision and control of the Lord Jesus Christ at the temple, who is the Head of Zion.

    Jehovah God is the great Theocrat, and Christ Jesus performs all the official acts of Jehovah, including the appointment and discharge of servants. The organization is God’s, and not man’s; and since the Society is the Lord’s representative on earth, he uses it for his purpose. As King Solomon exercised like power in a typical manner, so now the Greater-than-Solomon, Christ Jesus, exercises full power and puts out the “evil servant” and raises up and puts into office and action the “faithful and wise servant,” which latter he uses for his purpose. (1 Kings 2:1-6, 26-35; Matthew 24:45-51)

    The kingdom is actually here, and the King is performing his functions, and, that being true, there could be no further occasion to employ the “Elijah period” method or democratic form of government in the companies or congregations of God’s people by voting for or against those put forward for service. “God ruleth in Jacob [his anointed ones] unto the ends of the earth.” (Psalm 59:13) Since the coming of the Lord Jesus in 1918 there is therefore a reorganization of the Lord’s servants, even though the consecrated come to a knowledge thereof some time after the change is made. It is the sole prerogative of the great Theocrat to appoint the members and set them in their places in the body of Christ as it pleases him. (1 Corinthians 12:18, 28) He acts by his Chief Officer, Christ Jesus, who is the great Judge for our time. (Acts 17:31) He is pouring out his holy spirit upon “all flesh,” that is, all of the temple company in the flesh, from AD 1922 onward, and therefore God has not set up a separate and superior clergy-class or so-called “holy orders,” but all of Zion are on a common footing, and “one is [their] Master [(Greek) kathegetes, guide, leader, director, commander, and teacher], even Christ.” (Matthew 23:8, Parkhurst)

    All share in one general fulfillment of the commission God has given to the remnant, but necessarily there are different places of service in the theocratic government, just as there were in the tabernacle service. Officers or titles are nothing, because the service can be performed in one name as well as in another. The Head, Christ Jesus, properly bears any and all titles. He shows his complete submission to the great Theocrat. Christ Jesus joyfully bears the name “elect” “servant,” “my servant.” The remnant constitute “the feet of him,” and therefore all are properly called servants. In harmony therewith that Society, in the recent past, has designated all in the organization as “servants,” and that without reference to the place one fills. The assignment and designation of a certain one in a certain place means that the servant is assigned to certain duties within a restricted area, and all the servants are working harmoniously to one end,

    The Lord has gradually revealed to his people the proper meaning of “his organization,” and now it clearly appears from the Scriptures that all servants in the various positions of the organization of the remnant or anointed ones of God’s people on the earth are properly named by the Society as the visible representatives of the Lord at the temple, and that such obligation of naming their servants is not laid upon each separate company, to act in the democratic fashion of casting votes for and against. The company of God’s people at London, England, some time ago saw this situation and by resolution requested the Society to appoint servants of the company. Therefore, acting in obedience to the Scriptures and in harmony with such request, the London company was organized as one company, composed of several units, and one company servant appointed over all units and a captain or unit servant for each of the units which composed the company. The Greater New York company, the Chicago company, the Los Angeles company, and other companies, have been organized and are now operated in a like manner. At the request of each of the companies the Society has reorganized the service organization and appointed the servants. It therefore appears to be entirely Scriptural, and in order, that a company of God’s people may request the Society to carry out this organization arrangement, and this way be done for each and every company of the Lord’s people. Each local company may properly suggest the names of those who appear to be best qualified to fill the respective positions of service, and then place before or send such request to the Society at the Brooklyn headquarters or to the headquarters in the various countries of the earth, and such names will be considered in making such appointment. The anointed have full faith that the Lord will direct that the proper course may be taken. That will not mean that there will be no mistakes, because some, after being appointed, may prove unfaithful, and the Lord has made full arrangements in removing such.

    Let all companies of God’s people who see that such is the proper and Scriptural arrangement adopt a brief resolution and send it to the respective headquarters above mentioned, which resolution may be in the following form, to wit:

    “We, the company of God’s people taken out for his name, and now at (…) recognize that God’s government is a pure theocracy and that Christ Jesus is at the temple and in full charge and control of the visible organization of Jehovah, as well as the invisible, and that “THE SOCIETY” is the visible representative of the Lord on earth, and we therefore request “The Society” to organize this company for service and to appoint the various servants thereof, so that all of us may work together in peace, righteousness, harmony and complete unity.

    We attach hereto a list of names of persons in this company that to us appear more fully mature and

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    who therefore appear to be best suited to fill the respective positions designated for service.”

    Surely it must now appear to all of God’s people that the time is here for a better and more completely harmonious organization for the service of the Lord and that now is the time for peace and righteousness in God’s visible organization, and in which time everyone in the organization and in the service should maintain peace and righteousness in the advancement of the kingdom interest of the Lord’s organization. A harmonious organization is required by the Lord, and full unity in action must be maintained. Such is the Lord’s commandment, and his commandments must be obeyed. (Acts 3:23) Does it not, therefore, clearly appear to the anointed that Jehovah God has now fulfilled the terms of the prophecy at Isaiah 60:17, and that as gold is better than silver and the other materials therein named by way of comparison, so now God has brought in a better understanding and condition in his organization and that now he has brought forward and made his approved servants peace and righteousness and that he requires of all full and complete harmony and unity in action? In times past many who have ruled amongst the professed people of God have ruled with force and with cruelty. God promised that he would cause such a condition to cease, and therefore he said: “With force and with cruelty have ye ruled them. Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I am against the shepherds; and I will require my flock at their hand, and cause them to cease from feeding the flock; neither shall the shepherds feed themselves any more: for I will deliver my flock from their mouth, that they may not be meat for them.” (Ezekiel 34:4, 10)

    This prophecy applies to all who have manifested the wrong spirit amongst the people of God, and specifically including the clergy and the “elective elder” element and others who have showed the disposition to boss and ‘lord it over God’s heritage.’ Occasionally a report comes to the Society that in a certain company the “elective elder” or boss spirit is manifested by some claiming to be anointed, and who act arrogantly toward both the remnant and the Jonadabs.

    Let it now be clearly understood that it is the duty of the servants in the church, and in fact all of the temple company, to comfort one another and to comfort the “other sheep.” In the commission given to the anointed temple company these words appear: “To proclaim...the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn.” Therefore it is the clear duty of the remnant to declare the day of God’s vengeance and to do this with absolute unity in action; and it is likewise the duty of the remnant to comfort “all that mourn,” which specifically refers to those of good will who are in distress because of the conditions that prevail about them. (Ezekiel 9:4) The Lord will not tolerate bosses, troublemakers, murmurers, harsh or cruel rulers in his organization or any part thereof, whether factory, farm or field service. The Lord now clearly reveals his purpose to have peace and righteousness in his organization, and it therefore follows that all who will not joyfully get in line in obedience to this commandment the great Executive Officer by his angels will gather out. (Matthew 13:41) It is the time of war against the enemy, and therefore the time of united action of all of those in God’s organization. It is the time of peace, righteousness and complete unity, and hence harmonious action in service amongst all of those devoted to Jehovah.

    Let everyone in God’s organization see to it that he thus walks humbly or obediently with his God (Micah 6:8), that is, with Christ Jesus,” the Mighty God,” and with Jehovah, the Supreme One.

    In his own due time Jehovah reveals to his faithful people whatsoever it is his will they should know, and this he has proved by his manner of dealing with them during the past few years in particular. He has now shown his people that it is his time when they shall rise up against the enemy in war. There must of necessity, therefore, be complete harmony in the ranks of God’s organization. Let all quibbling, strife and discord cease. Zion is now builded up, and all of Zion must know and do the will of God. King Solomon was a type of Christ Jesus, who is the builder of the real temple of God, and what was recorded concerning the building of the typical temple, amongst other things, ‘happened unto them as ensamples, and they were written for our admonition’...‘and were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope.’ (1 Corinthians 10:11; Romans 15:4) By having this clear and positive information the following comparison of what came to pass with reference to Solomon and the typical temple, and what has been performed by Christ Jesus, the Greater-than-Solomon in the real temple, may be considered with profit.

    “And it came to pass, in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Zif [bloom] which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord.” (1 Kings 6:1) The time here mentioned was 1035 BC, and the second month thereof, second day (2 Chronicles 3:1, 2), appears to correspond with the year (AD) 1918, about the 15th of April of that year, about the time of the appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ at the temple. In the year 1918 the Memorial was celebrated on the 14 th day of the first Jewish month, or, to wit, our time, March 26, 1918. Jewish kings were formally enthroned and crowned in the spring of the year. Hence though the “seven times” of “the times of the Gentiles” ended in the fall of 1914, about October 1, yet according to the Jewish type Jehovah would induct into

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    office his reigning King in the following spring, to wit, AD 1915. Therefore the “fourth year” of Christ’s reign, corresponding with Solomon’s beginning the temple, would begin in the spring of AD 1918; and “the second month” thereof would begin shortly or about one-half month after the Memorial of that year, or, to wit, about the middle of April 1918, marking the beginning of the building of the antitypical temple by the Lord. Mark then the progress of the typical temple building: “In the fourth year was the foundation of the house of the Lord laid, in the month Zif: and in the eleventh year, in the month Bul [rain], which is the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according to all the fashion of it. So was he seven years in building it.” (1 Kings 6:37, 38)

    The feast of tabernacles and the dedication of the temple followed. “And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto king Solomon at the feast, in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh month.” (1 Kings 8:2) (See also 2 Chronicles 5:3) “Also, at the same time, Solomon kept the feast seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great congregation, from the entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt. And in the eighth day [the day after the seven-day tabernacle feast] they made a solemn assembly: for they kept the dedication of the altar seven days, and the feast seven days [total fourteen days]. And on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away into their tents, glad and merry in heart for the goodness that the Lord had shewed unto David, and to Solomon, and to Israel his people. Thus Solomon finished the house of the Lord, and the king’s house: and all that came into Solomon’s heart to make in the house of the Lord, and in his own house, he prosperously effected.” (2 Chronicles 7:8-11) (See also 1 Kings 8:62-66) Said “eleventh year” mentioned at 1 Kings 6:38 was seven years after 1035 BE, when Solomon began to build the temple, or in 1028 BE, and the temple dedication in the seventh month thereof would correspond with October, AD 1925. The dedication was about seven years and five and one-half months after the temple building was begun. The Memorial in 1925 was celebrated April 8, 1925. Hence the seventh Jewish month was about coincident with October 1925. The completion of the temple in the “eighth month” of the same year was about seven years six months after the building was begun. The completion thereof would therefore correspond with November 1925.

    At the dedication of the temple King Solomon prayed and in his prayer referred to the “stranger,” or foreigner, that should duly come to Jehovah’s temple for mercy because of Jehovah’s great name. (See 2 Chronicles 6:32, 33; 1 Kings 8:41-43) Such “strangers” would foreshadow or correspond with the Lord’s “other sheep,” or Jonadabs or people of good will, who go to make up the “great multitude.” Note now the facts showing God’s beginning to reveal to his people the great multitude.

    In the “eleventh year” after 1914 (to wit, the spring of 1915, when Jehovah would induct his reigning king into office, as above stated) or seven years after the coming of the Lord Jesus to the temple and his beginning to rear up the temple, God’s consecrated people were assembled in convention at Indianapolis, Indiana, and on the 29th day of August 1925 that assembly of God’s people adopted a resolution entitled “Message of Hope,” and which was the first and only one of the seven resolutions adopted over a period of seven years that was addressed “To All People of Good Will.” In this connection note that the “great multitude” (Revelation 7:9, 10), being people of good will, joined with God’s anointed remnant of the temple company in celebrating the great antitypical feast of tabernacles. Interesting, therefore, it is to note that the fourteen-day celebration, of the feast and the dedication of the building, in the seventh Jewish month of 1028 BC embraces not only the Jewish atonement day (on the 10th day) but also the entire seven-day feast of tabernacles (the 15th to the 21st, inclusive) with its booths and temple gatherings, with palm branches being waved by the people.

    After the feast and dedication celebration King Solomon completed the temple in the eighth Jewish month, and this corresponds with November 1925. The aforementioned resolution, “Message of Hope,” addressed as it was “To All people of Good Will,” began to be distributed by the millions of copies all over the earth on Saturday, October 31, 1925, and continued for some time thereafter, and thus the “Message of Hope” was taken to the “people of good will.” Did the Lord direct this matter? Surely!

    The temple at Jerusalem was typical of Jehovah’s “anointed” company of people taken out for his name, of which company Christ Jesus is the Head (Matthew 3:16, 17; 1 Corinthians 3:16) At the modern or antitypical fulfilment of Solomon’s dedication of the temple it was fitly appropriate that the attention of God’s anointed people be called to the outpouring or anointing of God’s holy spirit upon all of the approved ones. By the Lord’s grace and guidance, at the aforementioned convention at Indianapolis in 1925 there was then and there called to the attention of those assembled, by an address publicly delivered, the fulfillment of the prophecy of Joel 2:28, 29 concerning the outpouring of the holy spirit upon “all flesh,” including those who came to the knowledge of the truth and who were gathered into the temple following AD 1922. It is true that only a few thousand heard that public proclamation or discourse, but in due time, to correspond with the completion of Solomon’s temple, The Watchtower, in its issue of November 15, 1925, published the article previously verbally spoken, to wit, “The Holy Spirit Poured Out.” No man prearranged these things, but the Lord undoubtedly did direct them.

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    At the dedication of Solomon’s temple the glory of the Lord was made manifest. It was on the first day of the temple dedication, that is to say, the seventh month, the eighth day of the month, 1028 BE, when the ark of the covenant was brought into the most holy or “oracle” of the temple, at which time there were temple songs and other music by the priests, and “then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the Lord; so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of God.” (2 Chronicles 5:13, 14) Then Solomon prayed and in that prayer made mention of “the stranger,” and “when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the Lord filled the house. And the priests could not enter into the house of the Lord, because the glory of the Lord had filled the Lord’s house. And when all the children of Israel saw bow the fire came down, and the glory of the Lord upon the house, they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and worshipped, and praised the Lord, saying, For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever.” (2 Chronicles 7:1-3)

    The facts which the Lord caused to be brought to pass in the year 1925 show the fulfillment of this prophetic ceremony. In that year the name of Jehovah began to come to the fore and it came to be appreciated that Jehovah would now make a name for himself. In the beginning of the first Hebrew month The Watchtower of March 1, 1925, published the article “The Birth of The Nation,” meaning the kingdom had begun to function. An editorial committee, humanly provided for, then was supposed to control the publication of The Watchtower, and the majority of that committee strenuously objected to the publication of the article “The Birth of The Nation,” but, by the Lord’s grace, it was published, and that really marked the beginning of the end of the editorial committee, indicating that the Lord himself is running his organization. Following that, to wit, at the Indianapolis convention in 1925, the resolution “Message of Hope” was published and, among other things, contains these words: “The time has come for God to make for himself a name in the earth, and for the peoples to know the truth concerning the divine [purpose], which is the only means of salvation for the world. Therefore, in the name and in the spirit of the Lord the standard of God’s truth and righteous ness is here lifted up against the enemy, and for the benefit of the peoples, which standard is, to wit: That Jehovah is the true God, the Most High, the Almighty, the author and finisher of his great [purpose] for the salvation of man, and is the rewarder of all that diligently seek and obey him.” That was the first public occasion that announcement was made that Jehovah’s purpose is to make a name for himself. Thus at that time the glory of Jehovah began to be seen in the real temple and in a new relationship to his people, and that vision of God’s glory increased until it was seen that God’s chief purpose is the vindication of his name. Shortly thereafter, to wit, in January 1, 1926, issue of The Watchtower, there was published the article “Who Will Honor Jehovah?” thus calling attention to the glory of Jehovah’s name and stressing his manner of making a name for himself. (2 Samuel 7:23) This glorious purpose of Jehovah was therefore called publicly to “Christendom’s” attention at the proper time by the distribution of the “ Message of Hope.” Like the fourth plague described in Revelation 16:8, 9, and the fourth trumpet (Revelation 8:12), that “Message of Hope” began to dim the glory of Satan’s crowd on earth and show forth the Lord’s glory, and God’s people were greatly lifted up and rejoiced. (Light, Book One, page 130)

    At the dedication of the typical temple Solomon prayed, and, amongst other things, his prayer contained these words: “Moreover, concerning a stranger that is not of thy people Israel, but cometh out of a far country for thy name’s sake: (for they shall hear of thy great name, and of thy strong hand, and of thy stretched out arm;) when he shall come and pray toward this house: hear thou in heaven thy dwellingplace, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to thee for; that all people of the earth may know thy name, to fear thee, as do thy people Israel; and that they may know that this house, which I have builded, is called by thy name. If thy people go out to battle against their enemy, whithersoever thou shalt send them, and shall pray unto the Lord toward the city which thou hast chosen, and toward the house that I have built for thy name.” (1 Kings 8:41-44)

    Parallel thereto the “Message of Hope” (paragraphs 12 and 13 thereof) contain these words: “We

    confidently appeal to the peoples to rally to the divine standard of truth thus lifted up and thereby learn the way that leads to life and happiness. We call upon all the people of good will of every nation, kindred and tongue, to discard the errors invented by the enemy Satan and for many years taught by man, and to receive and believe the divine [purpose] for salvation as set forth in the Scriptures. God’s kingdom for which the peoples have long prayed is at hand. It alone can and will establish and stabilize the world so that it cannot be moved. Its ensign of righteousness is the standard now lifted up for the people. Christ Jesus, as glorified King and great executive officer of Jehovah God, has become the rightful ruler of the world. Let the peoples receive, believe and obey him and his laws of righteousness. All who so do are certain to receive the blessings of peace, prosperity, health, life, liberty and eternal happiness.” Thus is now seen the hand of the Lord guiding his covenant people in the way that they should go as he

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    has promised. (Proverbs 3:5, 6) It was freely announced even before that, that 1925 appeared to be an important year, but its real importance was not seen until the present time.

    Further interesting facts are these: “But Solomon was building his own house thirteen years, and he finished all his house. He built also the house of the forest of Lebanon; the length thereof was an hundred cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty cubits, and the height thereof thirty cubits, upon four rows of cedar pillars [like a cedar forest of Lebanon], with cedar beams upon the pillars. Then he made a porch for the throne, where he might judge, even the porch of judgment; and it was covered with cedar from one aide of the floor to the other. And his house where he dwelt had another court within the porch, which was of the like work. Solomon made also an house for Pharaoh’s daughter, whom he had taken to wife, like unto this porch.” (1 Kings 7:1, 2, 7, 8) “And it came to pass at the end of twenty years, when Solomon had built the two houses, the house of the Lord, and the king’s house.” (1 Kings 9:10; 2 Chronicles 8:1) The completion of that particular building program of Solomon included the temple, the king’s palace, and the house of the forest of Lebanon for judgment (and also for an armory, 2 Chronicles 9:15, 16); which completion took place in the twentieth year after the beginning of the temple, said year being 1016 BE, and which “twentieth year” ends with the beginning of the spring of 1938, and hence corresponds with the year 1937 which ends in the spring of 1938; and to which attention is here directed.

    The year 1937 appears to be a marked year of importance to the people of God, including both the remnant and their “companions,” the people of good will, as if this year may be introductory to something more important. In that “twentieth year,” 1937, there assembled the most constructive and important conventions of Jehovah’s witnesses yet assembled, to wit, in the city of Paris, France, in August, and at Columbus, Ohio, in September, 1937. By means of radio the witnesses in other parts of the earth, to wit Europe, Africa, Australia, and islands of the sea, had a part in those assemblies. The public address pointing to God’s way of “Safety” was delivered to a visible audience of 30,000 persons and at the same time over many radio stations. (September 18 and 19) Then on September 26, 125 radio stations broadcast the public address “Worshiping God,” wherein was condemned the conduct of the commercial radio stations and operators for improper use of this God-given facility; and then on October 31 thereafter judgment against the commercial radio owners, operators, and controllers of radio stations was expressed by discontinuing of commercially-paid radio programs which relate to God’s kingdom. Was this directed and done at the dictation of the King, Christ Jesus, in the “porch of judgment?” It was not prearranged by any man having in mind the fulfillment of prophecy.

    It is of some significance that in the close of this very “twentieth year” the question of Jehovah’s temple and royal house, and who is in it, and their duty and responsibility, is considered and now prepared to be published in The Watchtower and the publication of which will immediately precede what is here written. It also appears certain that as in the “thirteen years” during which Solomon was building his royal palace and his judgment house like a forest of Lebanon, so during the thirteen years from 1925 onward Jehovah’s King Judge, Christ Jesus, has been expressing his judgments, including ‘the cleansing of the sanctuary,’ and also by the arrangement of service organization and work. Individualism of the respective companies has been done away with, and the Society, by the will and grace of Jehovah, has taken its proper place in Jehovah’s theocratic government. The unity of the anointed and the harmonious co-operation with their companions are made manifest today as never before. The Watch tower in this “twentieth year” has set forth the Scriptural proof as to who is of the royal house and who of the “great multitude,” and their relationship to each other and to the Lord. It was in May 1937 that The Watchtower announced that capable Jonadabs are eligible for company service organizations. The Watch tower, as of August 15, 1937, published the article “Companions,” setting forth the relationship of the “little flock” and the “great multitude.” The end of the “twentieth year” in 1015 BC (which twentieth year corresponds with 1938) comes in the fulfillment on April 2, 1938. The Memorial for 1938 was celebrated April 15, 1938. T he Watchtower for March 1 and 15, 1938, published the “Memorial” article, setting forth clearly who shall partake, and also the article showing the distinction between the anointed and great multitude; and thus “the twentieth year” parallel comes to a close, which matter is seen for the first time as this present article is in course of preparation for publication.

    As previously arranged, by the Lord’s grace and guidance, the international testimony period entitled “Companions” began April 9, 1938, and progresses, and during which time the books Riches and Enemies, together with the booklet Cure, are specifically featured and widely distributed. The magazine now Con solation is also put forward in this testimony period. It is quite manifest that the Lord is guiding his people and that his theocratic government is in operation and complete control, so far as his visible organization on earth is concerned. Will everyone who loves the Lord get in line and take his respective and proper place?

    During the “twenty years” of Solomon’s building program he employed or made use of non-Israelites

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    or foreign laborers. That seems to clearly correspond with the Jonadabs or non-anointed ones’ participating in the service work. The Scriptural evidence may here be considered with interest and profit: “And king Solomon sent, and fetched Hiram [this was not king Hiram, but the son of a widow (see margin)] out of Tyre. He was a widow’s son of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre [was a foreigner], a worker in brass: and he was filled with wisdom and understanding and cunning to work all works in brass. And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all his work.” (1 Kings 7:13, 14; 2 Chronicles 2:13, 14)

    King Hiram sent his servants to work for Solomon. “And Hiram king of Tyre sent his servants unto Solomon; for he had heard that they had anointed him king in the room of his father; for Hiram was ever a lover of David.” “And the Lord gave Solomon wisdom, as he promised him; and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon; and they two made a league together.” “And Solomon’s builders and Hiram’s builders did hew them, and the stonesquarers; so they prepared timber and stones to build the house.” (1 Kings 5:1, 12, 18; 2 Chronicles 2:8-10) Other strangers or proselytes of Israel were brought into service: “And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in the land of Israel, after the numbering wherewith David his father had numbered them [showing that those outside of the land of Israel were unnumbered]; and they were found an hundred and fifty thousand and three thousand and six hundred. And he set threescore and ten thousand [seventy thousand] of them [strangers or proselytes] to be bearers of burdens, and fourscore thousand [eighty thousand] to be hewers in the mountain [of Lebanon], and three thousand and six hundred [3,600] overseers to set the people a work.” (2 Chronicles 2:17, 18) This corresponds with extending to the “great multitude,” or Jonadabs, a part in the witness work of the present time. (Revelation 22:17)

    Some other interesting facts are these: Solomon began building the temple 480 years after the Exodus from Egypt. (1 Kings 6:1) Hence the twenty-year building program of Solomon ended 500 years after the Exodus. Five hundred years before 1938 or, to wit, 1438, there were movements for the release of the people from religious bondage under the Papacy. In the thirty-first session of the Council of Basle, Switzerland, in that year the Council declared Pope Eugenius IV contumacious, suspended him from the exercise of all jurisdiction, both temporal and spiritual, and pronounced all that he should do to be null and void. (McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia, Volume I, page 689) T he Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 5, ninth edition, page 731, says: ‘In the year 1438, Council of Ferrara [an Italian city], convoked by Eugenius W, opposed the Council of Basle; the Emperor John Palaeologus [of the Eastern or Greek Empire] and the Greek Patriarch were present. The pope was deposed by the fathers of Basle, and the latter were excommunicated at Ferrara. ’ The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 10, page 572, tells of the continuous controversy between the pope and the Council of Basle.

    The Scriptures show that, after the twenty years of Solomon’s building program as above set out, he engaged in a nation-wide building program. (1 Kings 9:10, 17-23; 2 Chronicles 8:1-10) Then came the queen of Sheba “from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon.” (Matthew 12:42; 1 Kings 10:1-10; 2 Chronicles 9:1-9, 12) This suggests the question: What is in the immediate future for the people of Jehovah on earth? With full confidence we will wait, and we shall see.

    By way of contrast or comparison we now see that Jehovah has brought in a better condition amongst his people than has heretofore been enjoyed. He has illuminated his prophecy concerning the government of his people. As gold is better than bronze, and silver better than iron, and bronze better than wood, and iron better than stone, so instead of controversies, contentions and arguments usually prevailing at the time of the exercise of the democratic method of selecting servants, now Jehovah, through Christ Jesus, appoints for service in his organization his “exactors,” that is, overseers, officers or servants, for peace, prosperity and righteousness, and all must dwell together and work together in peace and in harmony. Instead of rivalry in the selection of servants, and instead of a rule by bosses or self-exalted ones, Christ Jesus now rules as the special representative of the great Theocrat, Jehovah, and his servants must all be in full harmony with him. Let all contentious persons and troublemakers beware. There is no room for such now in the organization of the Lord. Jehovah’s theocratic government is now in full control of the people of God, and to Jehovah’s great Prophet, King and Judge every knee shall bow and every tongue joyfully confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, King and Ruler, to the glory of God His Father. (Philippians 2:10, 11) All of the temple company are one in Christ Jesus, and “in his temple doth every one speak of his glory.” The faithful servants of Jehovah are resting securely in the hand of the Almighty God, and concerning whom it is written: “Let the saints be joyful in glory; let them sing aloud upon their beds. Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their hand.” (Psalm 149:5, 6)

  • refiners fire
    refiners fire

    Craig. Many thanks.

    I will certainly read them tonight and comment in due course. Sorry i havent responded sooner. Ive got some drama at the moment and find little time to attend here.

  • minimus

    Craig, Would you mind posting the 1938 Watchtower Bound Volume too?

  • onacruse

    rf, at your leisure. I daresay you'll have some "fun" with this stuff.

    LOL @ you want that one article at a time, or the whole year at once?

    These 2 articles are a much more interesting historical read when taken in the context of what had been transpiring in the late 20s and early 30s. The late 20s saw a huge defection: w55 336 has 90,434 Memorial attendance for 1925, and the back pages of the Divine Purpose book have 17,380 for 1928---a loss of 80%! The early 30s Watchtowers have article after article condemning those who "left the truth," and especially those pesky elective elders. In 1932 the annual 'elder election' process was terminated, replaced with a one-time-vote-and-elder-for-life setup. But the elders were still selected and appointed locally, so the "independent thinking" of the companies (as they were then called) continued unabated, as did the condemnatory WT articles. (I gotta say, reading that crap sequentially just about makes a person wanna vomit, there's so much bile and venom).

    That led up to these articles in 1938, where the WTS essentially says that there is no such thing as an elder (in the appointed or elected sense). To solve the insubordination problem that had been festering for 10 years, they simply scotched the whole 'elder body' and replaced it with Brooklyn-appointed "servants" (as they were thenceforth called, until the 'new light' of the early 70s ).

    In that context, it's utterly remarkable how the Solomonic temple-building project was such a picture-perfect 'type' (gag) of Rutherford's vendetta.


  • refiners fire
    refiners fire

    The late 20s saw a huge defection: w55 336 has 90,434 Memorial attendance for 1925, and the back pages of the Divine Purpose book have 17,380 for 1928---a loss of 80%!

    Another piece of information that answers a long term question for me. Youre a regular font of knowldege arent you!? Lol.

    I suspected as much of course. Thanks for the confirmation.

  • willyloman

    Wow, this is long. I'll just wait for the movie.

  • onacruse

    LOL @ willy...yeah, sorry about that! I too have a hard time with Superman posts Some folks asked for the full articles (for research), and this episode was one of the critical WTS organizational developments...the next one was in 1944.

    Reminds me...I better do a PayPal to cover the 400GB of bandwidth I just used.


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