Hello Narkissos - As I have absolutely no formal training in philosophy, I am not sure if this post of mine wll appear "off-topic" to you or not. If it does seem off-topic, please excuse me.
Your post reminded me of two things, the first being one of the major tenets of phenomenology - the notion that consciousness is intentional. Consciousness is always directed at something. Speaking of phenomenology, I was wondering if you had been able to find any satisfactory answers in the writings of phenomenologists such as Hegel; Husserl; Heidegger; Ricoeur; Brentano; Levinas; or Merleau-Ponty. It seems to me that phenomenologist philosophers usually write from a transcendental, existential, or dialectical perspective. Of course, they sometimes will combine these two, or even three, perspectives. I wonder what you think of the philosophers that I mentioned above [for that matter, I would like to know your ideas on the philosophers whom I did not mention].
To answer one of the questions that you posited in your original post, I am rather pessimistic in regard to the ability of anyone [be they "mystics" or not] to escape [echapper a] or to transcend the eternal regression of which you speak. Consciousness is an eternal spiral [whether you conceive of it as "ascending" or "descending" is your choice] from which there is no exit [huis clos].
I have always been interested in etymology, the origin of words. As I speak a little French, I am aware that the French word conscience is rendered two ways in English; it is translated both as conscience [that is to say moral sense, or awareness, or discernment], and as consciousness. Perhaps I am mistaken, but don't these three words share a common Latin etymology. In etymological terms, don't these words mean something like "knowing together" or "knowing with"? Isn't this idea suggested in the Latin prefix of these words? The point that I am "aiming at" is that perhaps both consciousness and conscience are of a collective nature.
Your post also reminded me of a passage at the end of the novel, Steppenwolf, Harry Haller has already had his full share of the "Magic Theater." It is the character "Pablo" who is speaking to Harry - "You have no doubt guessed long since that the conquest of time and the escape from reality, or however else it may be that you choose to describe your longing, means simply the wish to be relieved of your so-called personality. That is the prison where you lie.'"
Pablo continues his "lesson" to Harry by saying: "You have a longing to forsake this world and its reality and to penetrate a reality more native to you, to a world beyond time. You know, of course, where this world lies hidden. It is the world of your own soul that you seek. Only within yourself exists that other reality for which you long. I can give you nothing that has not already its being within yourself, I can throw open to you no picture gallery but your own soul."
And do you remember the passage entitled "Harry's Execution"? It's at the very end of the novel. In the passage, the "public prosecutor" reads the verdict: "'Gentlemen, there stands before you Harry Haller, accused and found guilty of the willful misuse of our Magic Theater. Haller has not alone insulted the majesty of art in that he confounded our picture gallery with so-called reality and stabbed to death the reflection of a girl with the reflection of a knife; he has in addition displayed the intention of using our theater as a mechanism of suicide and shown himself devoid of humor. Wherefore we condemn Harry Haller to eternal life and we suspend for twelve hours his permit to enter our theater. The penalty also of being laughed out of court may not be remitted.'"