Every now and then I come ac ross a person in ancient times that blows my mind. For instance at one time I agreed with many that in 175BCE Antiochus place a statute of Zeus in the temple and nothing was there before. But lo and behold several sources from then claim that before Zeus was an idol of Set-Typhon in the temple (Synchronism) It was really Judas Maccabee and his family that were the original 'Deuteronomists' (Not Josiah)
But two thing bugged me.
1. Daniel quotes Jeremiah in chapter 9 alluding to the 70 years And Jeremiah is by the same hand as Deuteronomy (This is so obvious I will not even bother to explain why here. That is a whole book to itself)
2. We know that had written historical texts from Genesis to Kings already based on the book of Enoch and it's early stages (It was written over time)
But then this morning I reread Daniel 9 and the answer was right there. 164 BCE is solidly fixed for Daniel however chapter 9 is so weird in the text that it is NOT original to Daniel. In fact if we count down we could conceivably end up in the late second century BCE if we start in the right place. Also Daniel 9 used Yahweh several times and uses phrases like 'law of Moses'. It has Daniel praying regarding guilt of the exile. No Daniel 9 is Deuteronomist additions. Yahweh is and Moses are omitted elsewhere and Daniel 1:1 is NOT based on the book of King. In fact it cause too many problems. So this left me banging my head over my dates. Sirach is written in 130 (Not 180) and knows the books of kings and even Nehemiah. (Never heard of Ezra) So we know kings existed before 130 BCE. But can we narrow Deuteronomists material even closer?
Genesis -1 Kings 10 (removing Deuteronomy and all material based on it) leads to a beautiful story of Eden to Peace. At 1 Kings 11 everything and everyone gets well F**ked up.
I casually searched records from the Maccabean revolt and dynasty and all of the sudden I found it>>>
Eupolemus a historian in the time of Judas/Jonathan/Simon in 155BCE he listed the kings of Israel:
- Moses: Prophesied for 40 years
- Joshua son of Nun: Prophesied for 30 years and established a sacred tabernacle at Shiloh.
- Samuel: Prophetic reign is not given a period of time.
- Saul: By the will of God, Samuel chooses Saul to be king, and Saul rules for 21 years, then dies.
- David: David son of Saul becomes king, subdues the region through warfare, and dies.
- Solomon: Reigns and builds the temple.
Note several issues:
No history past Solomon! David is Saul's son? (Actually remove the Deuteronomist material and you can reach that conclusion!) He does mention a Jeremiah but portrays him as fictional (I will throw a kind bone and say Jeremiah was likely a historical oracle in the 7th century BCE and Baruch likely recorded some oracles which I believe are mostly lost.
Now let me say this is a very hot smoking gun!
155-130BCE is the timeframes involved for not only Deuteronomy the history called the Deuteronomist History but also Jeremiah and much additions or even composition of prophets and even many Psalms.(Provers, Job, Ecclesiastes (A Stoicism document) predate this by a century likely and never mention later kings. Proverbs actually makes up an imaginary king in chapter 31!
This was way later then I even liked or wanted. Thus raises a whole new layer to the Hasmonean dynasty. But more important the fact is that the texts from 1 Kings 11-2 Kings 25 uses two source documents. The Kings of Israel/The Kings of Judah which are fairly accurate. These documents unlike other material in the bible were NOT Babylonian or Greek or Egyptian legends. The most accurate section of the bible is indeed 1 Kings 11-I2 Kings 25 (Obviously mostly based on kings annuals)
Glad I found this key historian!