The Evolutionary History of the Apple
This is a fascinating study of how our modern apples evolved. The study involved examining the genomes of the array of apple varieties, including related types of fruit.
From it we can learn that the fruit types we know today, may not have existed in ancient times
From its origins in what we now call Kazakhstan, it seems the original fruit changed as trees grew in many places along the great ancient network of trade routes we call the Silk Road, and as different varieties evolved in various ways.
A readable version of the story can be found in Popular Archaeology:
But an even more fascinating version (for the technically-minded) may be found in a British academic journal, Nature Communications.
Here's an extract from the Abstract:
"A comprehensive model of apple speciation and domestication along the Silk Road is proposed based on evidence from diverse genomic analyses. Cultivated apples likely originate from Malus sieversii in Kazakhstan, followed by intensive introgressions from M. sylvestris. M. sieversii in Xinjiang of China turns out to be an “ancient” isolated ecotype not directly contributing to apple domestication. We have identified selective sweeps underlying quantitative trait loci/genes of important fruit quality traits including fruit texture and flavor, and provide evidences supporting a model of apple fruit size evolution comprising two major events with one occurring prior to domestication and the other during domestication. This study outlines the genetic basis of apple domestication and evolution, and provides valuable information for facilitating marker-assisted breeding and apple improvement."
The primary authors are: Naibin Duan, Yang Bai and Xuesen Chen.
The lead institution for the research appears to be (at least it's listed first in the journal's write-up),
State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, PRC.. but there are large number of sharing institutions in both China and the USA.
I`m confused !! which Apple did Eve eat ?
I thought this was the evolutionary history of the apple?
Thanks Fts, the domestication of the apple from the wild species is an interesting case of finding naturally occurring varieties which have special or desirable qualities and their genes have then been kept in circulation by cultivating them. The silk road makes sense because it runs through many climate zones which apples tolerate well.
We all tend to judge things from the base of the familiar and in the UK we have many varieties of apple which are two hundred years old but hop across the channel to France and it is a surprise to find that the varieties, especially for cider and Calvados production, are often Gallo-Roman i.e. two thousand years in cultivation.
Btw the wild apple (aka crab) in Europe Malus sylvestris can be distinguished in hedgerows by having all white blossom whereas the domesticated apple which has often found its way there, has pink edges to the petals.
@stuckinarut2 Lmao. Now open wide and take a big byte!
THIS IS AWESOME! I dont know if this was a CO line for everyone.
But the last idiot CO I had (when I still went) went off for 5 min on how generous doG was by not giving us 1 apple type but thousands of varieties.
This idiot assclown moron I guess didnt think to use Google to see if what he was saying was correct?
I am sure it was in the outline - so we all know the GB are never wrong.
I thought it was pretty common knowledge that apple varieties have been made by farmers, and not dog?
There were not Granny Smiths back in Fake Eden.
smiddy : I`m confused !! which Apple did Eve eat ?
Grin! - When I started this thread, I wanted to use the popular conception of Eve's apple as a starting point, but found it too difficult - so I didnt use it. But that's the point isn't it, as ttdtt points out, the fruit we describe as 'apples' was likely not in existence at the mythical creation point of the bible. And, as most of us know, the Genesis account did not call the forbidden tree from which Eve is described as eating, an "apple.
Some think the confusion arose, because of the similarity, (in Latin translations), between 'mali' (Latin for bad or evil) in the Genesis 2:17 account, and the word 'mala' (Latin for apple) in documents like Proverbs 25:11.
But whatever the reason, its allowed a lot of fun for those who want to take the piss out of Christianity.
This was a few years ago, so I'm now having trouble finding the original version so this version will do - the lyrics translation is terrible, but you will get the idea. It starts off a girl thinks that her boyfriend called her ugly, so she has some surgical beautification - which is a failure - which all gives a chance to sing the theme song, "Little Apple"