Toby and Tina had Rh incompatability.
If nothing had been done Toby would have risked being born with anything from anemia to severe mental retardation to never having made it out of his mother's womb alive. (Hemolytic disease.) Let's hope the blood transfusions were done soon enough that his health is not compromised.
And, you are correct, X, this is not the first intra-uterine blood transfusion.
There is a blood fraction, gamma globulin, that Tina might have taken to prevent the necessity for the transfusions had she known she was pregnant (don't ask me how she got 5 months along without knowing!!!).
If the mother is Rh neg and the father Rh pos, the mom can be screened throughout her pregnancy with blood tests to see if her body is attacking the fetus. If so, then intervention might be necessary.
Why do I know so much? I am Rh negative and have delivered 3 Rh positive children. I took the Rhogam (tm) shots during each pregnancy and only one child had a mild case of jaundice at birth.
It is important for parents-to-be to know their blood types and Rh factors. If there is an incompatability, the Society does allow the use of the gamma globulin blood fraction. (June 1990 Watchtower) There is also a post-partum shot to be taken to ensure that in the rare event the mother's and child's blood mixed during delivery, she will not build up anti-bodies against the positive blood type. If she should build up antibodies, all future fetuses are at risk for the problems listed above. Her immune system will attack them, as Tina's did Toby's. So, for the sake of the future kiddies, the shot should be taken within (I think) 24 hours of delivery.
Always pleased to educate!