References on the Natural Movement of Blood

by hawkaw 0 Replies latest jw friends

  • hawkaw

    The WT likes to tell their flock that researchers have shown fractions of blood such as albumin, "naturally move" between mother and fetus (child). Thus, these fractions are a matter of conscience and not banned (June 15, 2001 WT - Questions to the Readers pp 29-31). Yet red cells and white cells are still "banned".

    Well then, when your or your loved one's life is on the line, maybe you can get your local WT Blood Nazis (aka hospital liaison committee member) to explain the "natural movement" of red blood cells and white blood cells in these references (note lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells, leucocytes are white blood cells and a nucleated erythrocyte and erythroblastsis a are immature red blood cells) :

    1: New Blood Test Can Uncover fetal Defects, Associated Press, New York Times, 1996, November 4 : A16 (col. 4)

    2: Holzgreve W., Prenatal Diagnosis Using Fetal Cells Enriched from Maternal Blood, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

    3: Holzgreve W. Will ultrasound-screening and ultrasound-guided procedures be replaced by non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of fetal chromosome anomalies? [editorial]. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997;9:217-9.

    4: Schmorl G. Pathologisch-anatomische Untersuchungen über Publereklampsie. Leipzig: Vogel; 1893.

    5: Sargent IL, Johansen M, Chau S, Redman CWG. Clinical experience: isolating trophoblasts from maternal blood. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;731:154-61.

    6: Attwood HD, Park WW. Embolism to the lungs by trophoblast. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1960; 68:611-7.

    7: Henderson KG, Shaw TE, Barret IJ, Telenius AHP, Wilson RD, Kalousek DK. Distribution of mosaicism in human placentae. Hum Genet 1996;97:650-4.

    8: Goldberg JD, Wohlferd MM. Incidence and outcome of chromosomal mosaicism found at the time of chorionic villus sampling. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176:1349-53.

    9: Covone AE, Johnson PM, Mutton D, Adinolfi M. Trophoblast cells in peripheral blood of pregnant women. Lancet 1984;2:841-3.

    10: Covone AE, Kozman R, Johnson PM, Latt SA,Adinolfi M. Analysis of peripheral maternal blood samples for the presence of placental-derived cells using Y-specific probes and mAb H315. Prenat Diagn 1988;5:591-607.

    11: Bertero MT, Camaschella C, Serra A, Bergui L, Caligaris-Cappio F. Circulating "trophoblast" cells in pregnancy have maternal genetic markers. Prenat Diagn 1988;8:588-90.

    12: Walknoska J, Conte FA, Grumbach MM. Practical and theoretical implication of of fetal/maternal lymphocyte transfer. Lancet 1969;1:1119-22.

    13: Herzenberg LA, Bianchi DW, Schröder J, Cann HM, Iverson CM. Fetal cells in the blood of pregnant women: detection and enrichment by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979;76:1453-5.

    14: Schindler AM, Graf E, Martin-du-Pan R. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal lymphocytes in the maternal blood. Obstet Gynecol 1972;40:340-6.

    15:Schröder J, de la Chappelle A. Fetal lymphocytesin maternal blood. Blood 1972;39:153-61.

    16: Grosset L, Barelet V, Ordatchenko N. Antenatal fetal sex determination from maternal blood during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974;120:60-3.

    17: Sargent IL, Choo YS, Redman CWG. Isolating and analyzing fetal leukocytes in maternal blood. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;731:147-153.

    18: Schröder J, Tilikainen A, de la Chappelle A. Fetal leucocytes in maternal circulation after delivery. Transplantation 1974;17:346-60.

    19: Ciaranfi A, Curchod A, Odartchenko N. Post partum survival of fetal lymphocytes in the maternal blood. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1977;107:134-8.

    20: Bianchi DW, Zickwolf GK, Weil GJ, Sylvester S, Demaria MA. Male fetal progenitor cells persist in maternal blood for as long as 27 years postpartum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996;93:705-8.

    21: Gänshirt D, Garritsen H, Miny P, Holzgreve W. Fetal cells in maternal circulation throughout gestation. Lancet 1994;343:1038-9.

    22: Slunga Tallberg A, el Rifai W, Keinanen M, Ylinen K, Kurki T, Klinger K, et al. Maternal origin of nucleated erythrocytes in peripheral venous blood of pregnant women. Hum Genet 1995;96:53-7.

    23: Slunga Tallberg A, el Rifai W, Keinanen M, Ylinen K, Kurki T, Klinger K, et al. Maternal origin of transferrin receptor positive cells in venous blood of pregnant women. Clin Genet 1996;49:196-9.

    24: Holzgreve W, Ghezzi F, Di Naro E, Maymon E, Gänshirt D, et al. Feto-maternal cell traffic is significantly perturbed in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. In press 1998.

    25: Bianchi DW, Flint AF, Pizzimneti MF, Knoll JHM, Latt SA. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;8:3279-83.

    26: Miltenyi S, Müller W, Weichel W, Radbruch A.High gradient magnetic cell seperation with MACS. Cytometry 1990;11:231-8.

    27: Gänshirt-Ahlert D, Burschyk M, Garritsen HS, Helmer L, Miny P, Horst J, et al. Magnetic cell sorting and the transferrin receptor as potential means of prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;166:1350-5.

    28: Elias S, Price J, Dockter M, Wachtel S, Tharapel A, Simpson JL, et al. First trimester prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 in fetal cells from maternal blood. Lancet 1992;340:1033.

    29: Bianchi DW, Mahr A, Zickwolf GK, Houseal TW, Flint AF, Klinger KW. Detection of fetal cells with 47,XY,+21 karyotype in maternal peripheral blood. Hum Genet 1992;90:368-70.

    30: Gänshirt-Ahlert D, Börejesson-Stoll R, Burschyk M, Dohr A, Gerritsen HSP, Helmer E, et al. Detection of fetal trisomies 21 and 18 from maternal blood using triple gradient and magnetic cell sorting. Am J Reprod Immun 1993;30:194-201.

    31: Sekizawa A, Kimura T, Sasaki M, Nakamura S,Kobayashi R, Sato T. Prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a single fetal nucleated erythrocyte in maternal blood. Neurology 1996;46:1350-3.

    32: Cheung MC, Goldberg JD, Kan YW. Prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia by analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood. Nat Genet 1996;14:264-8.

    33: Lo YMD, Patel P, Wainscoat JS, Sampietro M,Gillmer MDG, Fleming KA. Prenatal sex determination by DNA amplification from maternal peripheral blood. Lancet 1989;ii:1363-5.

    34: Lo YMD, Patel P, Baigent CN, Gillmer MD, Chamberlain P, Travi M, et al. Prenatal sex determination from maternal peripheral blood usingthe polymerase chain reaction. Hum Genet 1993;90:483-8.

    35: Camaschella C, Alfarano A, Gottardi E, Travi M, Primignani P, Cappio FC, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal hemoglobin Lepore-Boston disease on maternal peripheral blood. Blood 1990;75:2102-6.

    36: Lo YMD, Bowell PJ, Selinger M, Mackenzie IZ, Chamberlain P, Gillmer MDG, et al. Prenatal determination of fetal RhD status by analysis of peripheral blood of rhesus negative mothers. Lancet 1993;341:1147-1148.

    37: Handyside AH, Delhanty JDA. Preimplatation genetic diagnosis: strategies and suprises. Trends Genet 1997;13:270-5.

    38: Sekizawa A, Watanabe A, Kimura T, Saito H,Yanaihara T, Sato T. Prenatal diagnosis of the fetal RhD blood type using a single nucleated erythrocyte from maternal blood. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:501-5.

    39: Savion S, Carp H, Shepshelovich J, Irlin J, Kostykov M, Fein A, et al. Use of antibodies against the human antigen of erythroblasts for the detection of nucleated erythrocytes in the maternal circulation. Biol Neonate 1997;71:126-30.

    40: Zheng YL, Zhen DK, Demaria MA, Berry SM, Wapner RJ, Evans MI, et al. Search for the optimal fetal cell antibody: results of immunophenotyping studies using flow cytometry. Hum Genet 1997;100:35-42.

    41: Von Koskul H, Gahmberg N. Fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood identified with 2,3-biphosphate (BPG) and in situ hybridization (ISH) using Y-specific probes. Pren Diagn 1995;15:149-54.

    42: Hengstschlager M, Bernaschek G. Fetal cells in the peripheral blood of pregnant women express thymidine kinase: a new marker for detection. FEBS Lett 1997;404:299-302.

    43: Hall JM, Adams S, Williams S, Rehse MA, Layton TJ, Molesh DA. Purification of fetal cells from maternal blood using an avidin-biotin immunoaffinity column. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;731:115-27.

    44: Steele CD, Wapner RJ, Smith JB, Haynes MK,Jackson LG. Prenatal diagnosis using fetal cells isolated from maternal peripheral blood: a review. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1996;39:801-13.

    45: Sitar G, Manenti L, Farina A, Lanati V, Mascheretti P, Forabosco A, et al. Characterization of the biophysical properties of human erythroblasts as a preliminary step to the isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood for non invasive prenatal genetic investigation. Heamatologica 1997;82:5-10.

    46: Wachtel SS, Sammons D, Manley M, Wachtel G,Twitty G, Utermohlen J, et al. Fetal cells in maternal blood: recovery by charge flow separation. Hum Genet 1996;98:162-6.

    47: Lo YMD, Morey AL, Wainscoat JS, Fleming KA. Culture of fetal erythroid cells from maternal peripheral blood. Lancet 1994;344:264-5.

    48: Valerio D, Aiello R, Altieri V, Malato AP,Fortunato A, Canazio A. Culture of fetal erythroid progenitor cells from maternal blood for non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. Prenat Diagn 1996;16:1073-82.

    49: Karine Mignon-Godefroy, Guillet J, Butor C. Solid phase cytometry for detection of rare events. Cytometry 1997;27:336-44.

    50: Netten H, Young IT, van Vliet LJ, Tanke HJ,Vroljik H, Sloos WCR. FISH and chips: automation of
    fluorescent dot counting in interphase cell nuclei. Cytometry 1997;28:1-10.

    51: Bianchi DW, Williams JM, Sullivan LM, Hanson FW, Klinger KW, Shuber AP. PCR quantitation of fetal cells in maternal blood in normal and aneuploid pregnancies. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:822-9.

    52: Thilaganathan B, Meher-Homji NJ, Nicolaides KH. Blood transferrin receptor expression in chromosomally abnormal fetuses. Pren Diagn 1995;15: 282-4.

    53: Reisenberger K, Egarter C, Kapiotis S, Sternberger B, Gregor H, Husslein P. Transfer of erythropoeitin across the placenta perfused in vitro. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:738-42.

    Hoping this helps someone in need and please refer people to for more information.


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