Below is a link to infidels.org for their web page entitled Logic & Fallacies. It provides some good reading about sound reasoning and good arguments. The main page (which is not the provided link) is an introduction to atheism. While I am not a proponent of atheism the Logic & Fallacies page still contains accurate information. I think most here will enjoy the read.
I agree that learning to spot a fallacious argument can sometimes be tedious. It does take time to digest. I will also add that resolving issues by means of logic is not always the best method. For instance, most married people know that logic is often not even a consideration when feelings are at issue between mates. In such instances being able to yield emotionally is the way to gain resolution. However, when it comes to resolving correctness of teaching there is no substitute for sound argument.
You mentioned the straw man fallacy. That occurs when someone has presented an argument based upon certain premises and the counter-argument consists of discrediting a similar though weaker premise other than the specific one offered. I think the link provided will help you with that one. As an aside, that is one fallacy that is repeatedly committed by the Society in addressing various counter arguments opposed to its views.