Just to recap .
1. The House of Omri establishes the first kingdom of Israel after overthrowing Zimri.
2. Omri expands his Kingdom and builds a new capital at Samaria.
3. Omri dies and his son Ahab rules.
Ahab likely had many wives. However examining the Psalms we find a curious wedding hymn in Psalm 45.
Before dealing with the Psalm we need to know where it was written and who it was written for. Lets examine 1 Kings 16 first.
16:30Ahab the son of Omri did that
which was evil in the sight of Yahweh above all that were before him.
16:31It happened, as if it
had been a light thing for him to walk in the
sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat,
that he took
as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of
the Sidonians, and went and served Baal, and
worshiped him. 16:32He reared up an altar for
Baal in the house of Baal, which he had built
Ahab did yet more to provoke Yahweh, the God
of Israel, to anger than all the kings of Israel
who were before him.
A quick examination of the name of Jezebel and that of her father Ethbaal reveals quickly which deity they worshipped. The text (although written hundreds of years later) likely perserves the truth in that Ahab, likely a Yahweh worshipper in battle, made a special altar and temple for Baal to please his wife and likely to gain favor from more then one deity.
Indeed El was still the head god for these people.
What does this have to do with Psalm 45?
Pslam 45 ONLY mentions Northern locations and more specifically areas on the Israel/Syria/Sidion border. Not only that, the description of the King given is that of a king geared for war.
Ahab fought many wars with Syria accorsding to archeology and biblical texts.
Lets examine the text of the hymn:
1My heart overflows with a noble theme.
I recite my verses for the king.
My tongue is like the pen of a skillful
This is a scribe or a hired musician.
2You are the most excellent of the sons of men.
Grace has anointed your lips,
therefore El has blessed you forever.
Introduction of the groom.
3Strap your sword on your thigh, mighty one:
your splendor and your majesty.
4In your majesty ride on victoriously on behalf
of truth, humility, and righteousness.
Let your right hand display awesome
5Your arrows are sharp.
The nations fall under you, with arrows
in the heart of the king’s enemies.
A warrior king but a wise one.Indeed Ahab's rules was extremly prosperous.
6Your throne, El, is forever and ever.
A scepter of equity is the scepter of your
A praise for El.
7You have loved righteousness, and hated
Therefore El;, your God, has anointed
you with the oil of gladness above
8All your garments smell like myrrh, aloes, and
Out of ivory palaces stringed instruments
have made you glad.
The description here matches the Omrite palace in Samaria according to archeology. Now for Jezebel-The Bride>>
9Kings’ daughters are among your honorable
At your right hand the queen stands in
gold of Ophir.
10Listen, daughter, consider, and turn your ear.
Forget your own people, and also your
11So the king will desire your beauty,
honor him, for he is your lord.
Sound like a princess from Sidon? Listen to the next line>>>
12The daughter of Tyre comes with a gift.
The rich among the people entreat your
13The princess inside is all glorious.
Her clothing is interwoven with gold.
14She shall be led to the king in embroidered
The virgins, her companions who follow
her, shall be brought to you.
15With gladness and rejoicing they shall be led.
They shall enter into the king’s palace.
The last lines are a blessing on children.
16Your sons will take the place of your fathers.
You shall make them princes in all the
The last lines are praising El.
17I will make your name to be remembered in
Therefore the peoples shall give you
thanks forever and ever.
Jezebel and Ahab would have several sons and at least one daughter.
It is at this point we must consider a small but growing people to the south of Israel in a semi-arid highland. These were a curious people and their true origins have been debated. By Ahab's time these people have formed a stablized society, though not yet a kingdom.
Ahab's and Jezebel's daughter would form a marriage alliance with this house.
Before we deal with that marriage be must discuss the origins of these people. (It it rather shocking to some)
The Tribe of Judah will be the next topic.