Jesus was doubtless revealing the need for the prophesied new spirit that would be given a person when they are born again. Three times Jesus told Nicodemus that he must be born again. The partaking of the bread and the wine is symbolic of the new covenant whereby legal provision is made for a new spirit for believing sinners who are otherwise under the guilt (and punishment) of sin.
The man claimed in this instance that he had kept all these commandments. Jesus didn't agree that he had kept them perfectly and thus deserved entrance into the future kingdom. Rather, he knew that the man loved his possessions more than God, them being the true object of his trust. Jesus was taking advantage of a teaching moment here and was trying to get the man to see his need for a personal Savior.
There are actually 3 of "you" making up one being, in the image of God. You are a body and also have a body. The same is true for your spirit and your soul.
The two following passages from the Bible clearly establish the fact that man is a triune being composed of spirit, soul, and body:
I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved....(1 Thessalonians 5:23).
For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow (body), and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart (Hebrews 4:12).
When a person is given a new spirit at the moment of being born again (trusting exclusively in Jesus and not your religion, money, or anything else) a new spirit is given a person. That new spirit is really YOU. This spirit DOES deserve entrance into the coming kingdom because it is sinless.
Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. 1 John 3: 9
Yet , just two chapters earlier John wrote this:
If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. - 1 John 1:8
The former passage is obviously talking about the new spirit person and the other is talking about the unsaved person or the as yet unperfected body of a born again believer. Both of them are YOU.
Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature - 2 Cor. 5: 17
This is why the churches and cults are filled (especially now in the last days) with cultural Christians and not born again Christians because a person must abandon himself to Christ to qualify for a new spirit. Most people, cultural Christians included, are quite attached to themselves and are not willing to do this.
Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand? 32Or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions of peace. 33So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple. - Luke 14: 31-33
Jesus' terms for peace with God are unusual in the history of conflict resolution. Contrary to most conquering Kings who only require a percentage, his requirement is ALL of our works. Thereafter, the born again believer can now rest.
There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God.10 For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his - Hebres 4: 9
...no one will be declared righteous before him by works... . - Romans 3: 20 New World Translation